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OLD-AGE AND SURVIVORS INSURANCE BENEFIT PAYMENTS[18]

Old-Age Insurance Benefits

Sec202[42 U.S.C. 402] (a) Every individual who—

(1) is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 214(a)),

(2) has attained age 62, and

(3) has filed application for old-age insurance benefits or was entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)),

shall be entitled to an old-age insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(A) in the case of an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), the first month in which such individual meets the criteria specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), or

(B) in the case of an individual who has attained age 62, but has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), the first month throughout which such individual meets the criteria specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) (if in that month he meets the criterion specified in paragraph (3)),

and ending with the month preceding the month in which he dies. Except as provided in subsection (q) and subsection (w), such individual’s old-age insurance benefit for any month shall be equal to his primary insurance amount (as defined in section 215(a)) for such month.

Wife’s Insurance Benefits

(b)(1) The wife (as defined in section 216(b)) and every divorced wife (as defined in section 216(d)) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, if such wife or such divorced wife—

(A) has filed application for wife’s insurance benefits,

(B) has attained age 62 or (in the case of a wife) has in her care (individually or jointly with such individual) at the time of filing such application a child entitled to a child’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual,

(C) in the case of a divorced wife, is not married, and

(D) is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual,

shall (subject to subsection (s)) be entitled to a wife’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(i) in the case of a wife or divorced wife (as so defined) of an individual entitled to old-age benefits, if such wife or divorced wife has attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), the first month in which she meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), or

(ii) in the case of a wife or divorced wife (as so defined) of—

(I) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, if such wife or divorced wife has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), or

(II) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits,

the first month throughout which she is such a wife or divorced wife and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) (if in such month she meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),

whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding the month in which any of the following occurs—

(E) she dies,

(F) such individual dies,

(G) in the case of a wife, they are divorced and either (i) she has not attained age 62, or (ii) she has attained age 62 but has not been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the date the divorce became effective,

(H) in the case of a divorced wife, she marries a person other than such individual,

(I) in the case of a wife who has not attained age 62, no child of such individual is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit,

(J) she becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual, or

(K) such individual is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.

(2) Except as provided in subsections (k)(5) and (q), such wife’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of her husband (or, in the case of a divorced wife, her former husband) for such month.

(3) In the case of any divorced wife who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (c), (f), (g), or (h) of this section, or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d),

such divorced wife’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) (but subject to subsection (s)), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(4)(A) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, except as provided in subparagraph (B), the divorced wife of an individual who is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, but who has attained age 62 and is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 214), if such divorced wife—

(i) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), and

(ii) has been divorced from such insured individual for not less than 2 years,

shall be entitled to a wife’s insurance benefit under this subsection for each month, in such amount, and beginning and ending with such months, as determined (under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) in the manner otherwise provided for wife’s insurance benefits under this subsection, as if such insured individual had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits on the date on which the divorced wife first meets the criteria for entitlement set forth in clauses (i) and (ii).

(B) A wife’s insurance benefit provided under this paragraph which has not otherwise terminated in accordance with subparagraph (E), (F), (H), or (J) of paragraph (1) shall terminate with the month preceding the first month in which the insured individual is no longer a fully insured individual.

Husband’s Insurance Benefits

(c)(1) The husband (as defined in section 216(f)) and every divorced husband (as defined in section 216(d)) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, if such husband or such divorced husband—

(A) has filed application for husband’s insurance benefits,

(B) has attained age 62 or (in the case of a husband) has in his care (individually or jointly with such individual) at the time of filing such application a child entitled to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual,

(C) in the case of a divorced husband, is not married, and

(D) is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual,

shall (subject to subsection (s)) be entitled to a husband’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(i) in the case of a husband or divorced husband (as so defined) of an individual who is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, if such husband or divorced husband has attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), the first month in which he meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), or

(ii) in the case of a husband or divorced husband (as so defined) of—

(I) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, if such husband or divorced husband has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), or

(II) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits,

the first month throughout which he is such a husband or divorced husband and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) (if in such month he meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),

whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding the month in which any of the following occurs:

(E) he dies,

(F) such individual dies,

(G) in the case of a husband, they are divorced and either (i) he has not attained age 62, or (ii) he has attained age 62 but has not been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the divorce became effective,

(H) in the case of a divorced husband, he marries a person other than such individual,

(I) in the case of a husband who has not attained age 62, no child of such individual is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit,

(J) he becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual, or

(K) such individual is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.

(2) Except as provided in subsections (k)(5) and (q), such husband’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of his wife (or, in the case of a divorced husband, his former wife) for such month.

(3) In the case of any divorced husband who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (e), (g), or (h) of this section, or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d), by reason of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) thereof,

such divorced husband’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) (but subject to subsection (s)), shall not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(4)(A) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, except as provided in subparagraph (B), the divorced husband of an individual who is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, but who has attained age 62 and is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 214), if such divorced husband—

(i) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), and

(ii) has been divorced from such insured individual for not less than 2 years,

shall be entitled to a husband’s insurance benefit under this subsection for each month, in such amount, and beginning and ending with such months, as determined (under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) in the manner otherwise provided for husband’s insurance benefits under this subsection, as if such insured individual had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits on the date on which the divorced husband first meets the criteria for entitlement set forth in clauses (i) and (ii).

(B) A husband’s insurance benefit provided under this paragraph which has not otherwise terminated in accordance with subparagraph (E), (F), (H), or (J) of paragraph (1) shall terminate with the month preceding the first month in which the insured individual is no longer a fully insured individual.

Child’s Insurance Benefits

(d)(1) Every child (as defined in section 216(e)) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or of an individual who dies a fully or currently insured individual, if such child—

(A) has filed application for child’s insurance benefits,

(B) at the time such application was filed was unmarried and (i) either had not attained the age of 18 or was a full-time elementary or secondary school student and had not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)) which began before he attained the age of 22, and

(C) was dependent upon such individual—

(i) if such individual is living, at the time such application was filed,

(ii) if such individual has died, at the time of such death, or

(iii) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until he became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or (if he has died) until the month of his death, at the beginning of such period of disability or at the time he became entitled to such benefits,

shall be entitled to a child’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(i) in the case of a child (as so defined) of such an individual who has died, the first month in which such child meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), or

(ii) in the case of a child (as so defined) of an individual entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or to a disability insurance benefit, the first month throughout which such child is a child (as so defined) and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B) and (C) (if in such month he meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),

whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding whichever of the following first occurs—

(D) the month in which such child dies, or marries,

(E) the month in which such child attains the age of 18, but only if he (i) is not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attains such age, and (ii) is not a full-time elementary or secondary school student during any part of such month,

(F) if such child was not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attained the age of 18, the earlier of—

(i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or

(ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19,

but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month;

(G) if such child was under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attained the age of 18 or if he was not under a disability (as so defined) at such time but was under a disability (as so defined) at or prior to the time he attained (or would attain) the age of 22—

(i) the termination month, subject to section 223(e) (and for purposes of this subparagraph, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 222(c)(4)(A), the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity),

or (if later) the earlier of—

(ii) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or

(iii) the month in which he attains the age of 19,

but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month; or

(H) if the benefits under this subsection are based on the wages and self–employment income of a stepparent who is subsequently divorced from such child’s natural parent, the month after the month in which such divorce becomes final.

Entitlement of any child to benefits under this subsection on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits shall also end with the month before the first month for which such individual is not entitled to such benefits unless such individual is, for such later month, entitled to old-age insurance benefits or unless he dies in such month. No payment under this paragraph may be made to a child who would not meet the definition of disability in section 223(d) except for paragraph (1)(B) thereof for any month in which he engages in substantial gainful activity.

(2) Such child’s insurance benefit for each month shall, if the individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income the child is entitled to such benefit has not died prior to the end of such month, be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual for such month. Such child’s insurance benefit for each month shall, if such individual has died in or prior to such month, be equal to three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such individual.

(3) A child shall be deemed dependent upon his father or adopting father or his mother or adopting mother at the time specified in paragraph (1)(C) unless, at such time, such individual was not living with or contributing to the support of such child and—

(A) such child is neither the legitimate nor adopted child of such individual, or

(B) such child has been adopted by some other individual.

For purposes of this paragraph, a child deemed to be a child of a fully or currently insured individual pursuant to section 216(h)(2)(B) or section 216(h)(3) shall be deemed to be the legitimate child of such individual.

(4) A child shall be deemed dependent upon his stepfather or stepmother at the time specified in paragraph (1)(C) if, at such time, the child was receiving at least one-half of his support from such stepfather or stepmother.

(5) In the case of a child who has attained the age of eighteen and who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of this section or under section 223(a), or

(B) another individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under this subsection,

such child’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) but subject to subsection (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(6) A child whose entitlement to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual terminated with the month preceding the month in which such child attained the age of 18, or with a subsequent month, may again become entitled to such benefits (provided no event specified in paragraph (1)(D) has occurred) beginning with the first month thereafter in which he—

(A)(i) is a full-time elementary or secondary school student and has not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)) and has not attained the age of 22, or

(B) is under a disability (as so defined) which began (i) before the close of the 84th month following the month in which his most recent entitlement to child’s insurance benefits terminated because he ceased to be under such disability, or (ii) after the close of the 84th month following the month in which his most recent entitlement to child’s insurance benefits terminated because he ceased to be under such disability due to performance of substantial gainful activity,

but only if he has filed application for such reentitlement. Such reentitlement shall end with the month preceding whichever of the following first occurs:

(C) the first month in which an event specified in paragraph (1)(D) occurs;

(D) the earlier of (i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student or (ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19, but only if he is not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month; or

(E) if he was under a disability (as so defined), the termination month (as defined in paragraph (1)(G)(i)), subject to section 223(e), or (if later) the earlier of—

(i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or

(ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19.

(7) For the purposes of this subsection—

(A) A “full-time elementary or secondary school student” is an individual who is in full-time attendance as a student at an elementary or secondary school, as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner) in the light of the standards and practices of the schools involved, except that no individual shall be considered a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” if he is paid by his employer while attending an elementary or secondary school at the request, or pursuant to a requirement, of his employer. An individual shall not be considered a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for the purpose of this section while that individual is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility, pursuant to his conviction of an offense (committed after the effective date of this sentence[19]) which constituted a felony under applicable law. An individual who is determined to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student shall be deemed to be such a student throughout the month with respect to which such determination is made.

(B) Except to the extent provided in such regulations, an individual shall be deemed to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student during any period of nonattendance at an elementary or secondary school at which he has been in full-time attendance if (i) such period is 4 calendar months or less, and (ii) he shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school immediately following such period. An individual who does not meet the requirement of clause (ii) with respect to such period of nonattendance shall be deemed to have met such requirement (as of the beginning of such period) if he is in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school immediately following such period.

(C)(i) An “elementary or secondary school” is a school which provides elementary or secondary education, respectively, as determined under the law of the State or other jurisdiction in which it is located.

(ii) For the purpose of determining whether a child is a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” or “intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school”, within the meaning of this subsection, there shall be disregarded any education provided, or to be provided, beyond grade 12.

(D) A child who attains age 19 at a time when he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student (as defined in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and without application of subparagraph (B) of such paragraph) but has not (at such time) completed the requirements for, or received, a diploma or equivalent certificate from a secondary school (as defined in subparagraph (C)(i)) shall be deemed (for purposes of determining whether his entitlement to benefits under this subsection has terminated under paragraph (1)(F) and for purposes of determining his initial entitlement to such benefits under clause (i) of paragraph (1)(B)) not to have attained such age until the first day of the first month following the end of the quarter or semester in which he is enrolled at such time (or, if the elementary or secondary school (as defined in this paragraph) in which he is enrolled is not operated on a quarter or semester system, until the first day of the first month following the completion of the course in which he is so enrolled or until the first day of the third month beginning after such time, whichever first occurs).

(8) In the case of—

(A) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits (other than an individual referred to in subparagraph (B)), or

(B) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, or an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits who was entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the first month for which he was entitled to old-age insurance benefits,

a child of such individual adopted after such individual became entitled to such old-age or disability insurance benefits shall be deemed not to meet the requirements of clause (i) or (iii) of paragraph (1)(C) unless such child—

(C) is the natural child or stepchild of such individual (including such a child who was legally adopted by such individual), or

(D)(i) Secwas legally adopted by such individual in an adoption decreed by a court of competent jurisdiction within the United States, and

(ii) in the case of a child who attained the age of 18 prior to the commencement of proceedings for adoption, the child was living with or receiving at least one-half of the child’s support from such individual for the year immediately preceding the month in which the adoption is decreed.

(9)(A) A child who is a child of an individual under clause (3) of the first sentence of section 216(e) and is not a child of such individual under clause (1) or (2) of such first sentence shall be deemed not to be dependent on such individual at the time specified in subparagraph (1)(C) of this subsection unless (i) such child was living with such individual in the United States and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual (I) for the year immediately before the month in which such individual became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, or (II) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until he had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or disability insurance benefits, or died, for the year immediately before the month in which such period of disability began, and (ii) the period during which such child was living with such individual began before the child attained age 18.

(B) In the case of a child who was born in the one-year period during which such child must have been living with and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual, such child shall be deemed to meet such requirements for such period if, as of the close of such period, such child has lived with such individual in the United States and received at least one-half of his support from such individual for substantially all of the period which begins on the date of such child’s birth.

(10) For purposes of paragraph (1)(H)—

(A) each stepparent shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of any divorce upon such divorce becoming final; and

(B) the Commissioner shall annually notify any stepparent of the rule for termination described in paragraph (1)(H) and of the requirement described in subparagraph (A).

Widow’s Insurance Benefits

(e)(1) The widow (as defined in section 216(c)) and every surviving divorced wife (as defined in section 216(d)) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such widow or such surviving divorced wife—

(A) is not married,

(B)(i) has attained age 60, or (ii) has attained age 50 but has not attained age 60 and is under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)) which began before the end of the period specified in paragraph (4),

(C)(i) has filed application for widow’s insurance benefits,

(ii) was entitled to wife’s insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died, and—

(I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)),

(II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) or section 223, or

(III) has in effect a certificate (described in paragraph (8)) filed by her with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which she elects to receive widow’s insurance benefits (subject to reduction as provided in subsection (q)), or

(iii) was entitled, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, to mother’s insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which she attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), and

(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2)) of such deceased individual,

shall be entitled to a widow’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(E) if she satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (i) thereof, the first month in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(F) if she satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (ii) thereof—

(i) the first month after her waiting period (as defined in paragraph (5)) in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(ii) the first month during all of which she is under a disability and in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if she was previously entitled to insurance benefits under this subsection on the basis of being under a disability and such first month occurs (I) in the period specified in paragraph (4) and (II) after the month in which a previous entitlement to such benefits on such basis terminated,

and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: she remarries, dies, becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2)) of such deceased individual, or, if she became entitled to such benefits before she attained age 60, subject to section 223(e), the termination month (unless she attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)) on or before the last day of such termination month). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which her disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 222(c)(4)(A), the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which she engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subsection (k)(5), subsection (q), and subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, such widow’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined for purposes of this subsection after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C)) of such deceased individual.

(B)(i) For purposes of this subsection, in any case in which such deceased individual dies before attaining age 62 and section 215(a)(1) (as in effect after December 1978) is applicable in determining such individual’s primary insurance amount—

(I) such primary insurance amount shall be determined under the formula set forth in section 215(a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii) which is applicable to individuals who initially become eligible for old-age insurance benefits in the second year after the year specified in clause (ii),

(II) the year specified in clause (ii) shall be substituted for the second calendar year specified in section 215(b)(3)(A)(ii)(I), and

(III) such primary insurance amount shall be increased under section 215(i) as if it were the primary insurance amount referred to in section 215(i)(2)(A)(ii)(II), except that it shall be increased only for years beginning after the first year after the year specified in clause (ii).

(ii) The year specified in this clause is the earlier of—

(I) the year in which the deceased individual attained age 60, or would have attained age 60 had he lived to that age, or

(II) the second year preceding the year in which the widow or surviving divorced wife first meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) or the second year preceding the year in which the deceased individual died, whichever is later.

(iii) This subparagraph shall apply with respect to any benefit under this subsection only to the extent its application does not result in a primary insurance amount for purposes of this subsection which is less than the primary insurance amount otherwise determined for such deceased individual under section 215.

(C) If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w), then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual’s primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 215(f)(5), 215(f)(6), or 215(f)(9)(B) and under section 215(i) as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which he was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which he died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of such subsection (w)) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which he died, prior to the month in which he died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of such subsection (w).

(D) If the deceased individual (on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income a widow or surviving divorced wife is entitled to widow’s insurance benefits under this subsection) was, at any time, entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was reduced by reason of the application of subsection (q), the widow’s insurance benefit of such widow or surviving divorced wife for any month shall, if the amount of the widow’s insurance benefit of such widow or surviving divorced wife (as determined under subparagraph (A) and after application of subsection (q)) is greater than—

(i) the amount of the old-age insurance benefit to which such deceased individual would have been entitled (after application of subsection (q)) for such month if such individual were still living and section 215(f)(5), 215(f)(6), or 215(f)(9)(B) were applied, where applicable, and

(ii) 82 1/2 percent of the primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to subparagraph (C)) of such deceased individual,

be reduced to the amount referred to in clause (i), or (if greater) the amount referred to in clause (ii).

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), if—

(A) a widow or surviving divorced wife marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if she was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or

(B) a disabled widow or disabled surviving divorced wife described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50,

such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred.

(4) The period referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), in the case of any widow or surviving divorced wife, is the period beginning with whichever of the following is the latest:

(A) the month in which occurred the death of the fully insured individual referred to in paragraph (1) on whose wages and self-employment income her benefits are or would be based, or

(B) the last month for which she was entitled to mother’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, or

(C) the month in which a previous entitlement to widow’s insurance benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income terminated because her disability had ceased,

and ending with the month before the month in which she attains age 60, or, if earlier, with the close of the eighty-fourth month following the month with which such period began.

(5)(A) The waiting period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), in the case of any widow or surviving divorced wife, is the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months—

(i) throughout which she has been under a disability, and

(ii) which begins not earlier than with whichever of the following is the later: (I) the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which her application is filed, or (II) the first day of the fifth month before the month in which the period specified in paragraph (4) begins.

(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(F)(i), each month in the period commencing with the first month for which such widow or surviving divorced wife is first eligible for supplemental security income benefits under title XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1616(a) (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93-66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1616(a) (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93-66), shall be included as one of the months of such waiting period for which the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.

(6) In the case of an individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable under this section for any month prior to January 1973 whose benefits were not redetermined under section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972[20], such benefits shall not be redetermined pursuant to such section, but shall be increased pursuant to any general benefit increase (as defined in section 215(i)(3)) or any increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 215(i), including for this purpose the increase provided effective for March 1974, as though such redetermination had been made.

(7) Any certificate filed pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)(ii)(III) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection—

(A) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and

(B) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;

except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which she attains age 62.

(8) An individual shall be deemed to be under a disability for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) if such individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under title XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1616(a) (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93-66[21]) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1616(a) (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93-66), for the month for which all requirements of paragraph (1) for entitlement to benefits under this subsection (other than being under a disability) are met.

Widower’s Insurance Benefits

(f)(1) The widower (as defined in section 216(g)) and every surviving divorced husband (as defined in section 216(d)) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such widower or such surviving divorced husband

(A) is not married,

(B)(i) has attained age 60, or (ii) has attained age 50 but has not attained age 60 and is under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)) which began before the end of the period specified in paragraph (4),

(C)(i) has filed application for widower’s insurance benefits,

(ii) was entitled to husband’s insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died, and—

(I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)),

(II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) or section 223, or

(III) has in effect a certificate (described in paragraph (8)) filed by him with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which he elects to receive widower’s insurance benefits (subject to reduction as provided in subsection (q)), or

(iii) was entitled, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, to father’s insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), and

(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3)) of such deceased individual,

shall be entitled to a widower’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(E) if he satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (i) thereof, the first month in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(F) if he satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (ii) thereof—

(i) the first month after his waiting period (as defined in paragraph (5)) in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(ii) the first month during all of which he is under a disability and in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if he was previously entitled to insurance benefits under this subsection on the basis of being under a disability and such first month occurs (I) in the period specified in paragraph (4) and (II) after the month in which a previous entitlement to such benefits on such basis terminated,

and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: he remarries, dies, or becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3)) of such deceased individual, or, if he became entitled to such benefits before he attained age 60, subject to section 223(e), the termination month (unless he attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)) on or before the last day of such termination month). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 222(c)(4)(A), the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subsection (k)(5), subsection (q), and subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, such widower’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined for purposes of this subsection after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C)) of such deceased individual.

(B)(i) For purposes of this subsection, in any case in which such deceased individual dies before attaining age 62 and section 215(a)(1) (as in effect after December 1978) is applicable in determining such individual’s primary insurance amount—

(I) such primary insurance amount shall be determined under the formula set forth in section 215(a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii) which is applicable to individuals who initially become eligible for old-age insurance benefits in the second year after the year specified in clause (ii),

(II) the year specified in clause (ii) shall be substituted for the second calendar year specified in section 215(b)(3)(A)(ii)(I), and

(III) such primary insurance amount shall be increased under section 215(i) as if it were the primary insurance amount referred to in section 215(i)(2)(A)(ii)(II), except that it shall be increased only for years beginning after the first year after the year specified in clause (ii).

(ii) The year specified in this clause is the earlier of—

(I) the year in which the deceased individual attained age 60, or would have attained age 60 had she lived to that age, or

(II) the second year preceding the year in which the widower or surviving divorced husband first meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) or the second year preceding the year in which the deceased individual died, whichever is later.

(iii) This subparagraph shall apply with respect to any benefit under this subsection only to the extent its application does not result in a primary insurance amount for purposes of this subsection which is less than the primary insurance amount otherwise determined for such deceased individual under section 215.

(C) If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w), then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual’s primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 215(f)(5), 215(f)(6), or 215(f)(9)(B) and under section 215(i) as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which she was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which she died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of such subsection (w)) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which she died, prior to the month in which she died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of such subsection (w).

(D) If the deceased individual (on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income a widower or surviving divorced husband is entitled to widower’s insurance benefits under this subsection) was, at any time, entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was reduced by reason of the application of subsection (q), the widower’s insurance benefit of such widower or surviving divorced husband for any month shall, if the amount of the widower’s insurance benefit of such widower or surviving divorced husband (as determined under subparagraph (A) and after application of subsection (q)) is greater than—

(i) the amount of the old-age insurance benefit to which such deceased individual would have been entitled (after application of subsection (q)) for such month if such individual were still living and section 215(f)(5), 215(f)(6), or 215(f)(9)(B) were applied, where applicable, and

(ii) 82 1/2 percent of the primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to subparagraph (C)) of such deceased individual;

be reduced to the amount referred to in clause (i), or (if greater) the amount referred to in clause (ii).

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), if—

(A) a widower or surviving divorced husband marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if he was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or

(B) a disabled widower or surviving divorced husband described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50,

such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred.

(4) The period referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), in the case of any widower or surviving divorced husband, is the period beginning with whichever of the following is the latest:

(A) the month in which occurred the death of the fully insured individual referred to in paragraph (1) on whose wages and self-employment income his benefits are or would be based,

(B) the last month for which he was entitled to father’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, or

(C) the month in which a previous entitlement to widower’s insurance benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income terminated because his disability had ceased,

and ending with the month before the month in which he attains age 60, or, if earlier, with the close of the eighty-fourth month following the month with which such period began.

(5)(A) The waiting period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), in the case of any widower or surviving divorced husband, is the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months—

(i) throughout which he has been under a disability, and

(ii) which begins not earlier than with whichever of the following is the later: (I) the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which his application is filed, or (II) the first day of the fifth month before the month in which the period specified in paragraph (4) begins.

(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(F)(i), each month in the period commencing with the first month for which such widower or surviving divorced husband is first eligible for supplemental security income benefits under title XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1616(a) (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93-66[22]) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1616(a) (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93-66), shall be included as one of the months of such waiting period for which the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.

(6) In the case of an individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable under this section for any month prior to January 1973 whose benefits were not redetermined under section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972[23], such benefits shall not be redetermined pursuant to such section, but shall be increased pursuant to any general benefit increase (as defined in section 215(i)(3)) or any increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 215(i), including for this purpose the increase provided effective for March 1974, as though such redetermination had been made.

(7) Any certificate filed pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)(ii)(III) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection—

(A) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and

(B) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;

except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which he attains age 62.

(8) An individual shall be deemed to be under a disability for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) if such individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under title XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1616(a) (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93-66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in such section 1616(a) (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93-66), for the month for which all requirements of paragraph (1) for entitlement to benefits under this subsection (other than being under a disability) are met.

Mother’s and Father’s Insurance Benefits

(g)(1) The surviving spouse and every surviving divorced parent (as defined in section 216(d)) of an individual who died a fully or currently insured individual, if such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent—

(A) is not married,

(B) is not entitled to a surviving spouse’s insurance benefit,

(C) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such individual,

(D) has filed application for mother’s or father’s insurance benefits, or was entitled to a spouse’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual for the month preceding the month in which such individual died,

(E) at the time of filing such application has in his or her care a child of such individual entitled to a child’s insurance benefit, and

(F) in the case of a surviving divorced parent—

(i) the child referred to in subparagraph (E) is his or her son, daughter, or legally adopted child, and

(ii) the benefits referred to in such subparagraph are payable on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income,

shall (subject to subsection (s)) be entitled to a mother’s or father’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with the first month in which he or she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: no child of such deceased individual is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit, such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual, he or she becomes entitled to a surviving spouse’s insurance benefit, he or she remarries, or he or she dies. Entitlement to such benefits shall also end, in the case of a surviving divorced parent, with the month immediately preceding the first month in which no son, daughter, or legally adopted child of such surviving divorced parent is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such deceased individual.

(2) Such mother’s or father’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.

(3) In the case of a surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under this subsection or subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), or (h), or under section 223(a), or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d),

the entitlement of such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) but subject to subsection (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

Parent’s Insurance Benefits

(h)(1) Every parent (as defined in this subsection) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such parent—

(A) has attained age 62,

(B)(i) was receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual at the time of such individual’s death or, if such individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he died, at the time such period began or at the time of such death, and (ii) filed proof of such support within two years after the date of such death, or, if such individual had such a period of disability, within two years after the month in which such individual filed application with respect to such period of disability or two years after the date of such death, as the case may be,

(C) has not married since such individual’s death,

(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than 82 1/2 percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case), and

(E) has filed application for parent’s insurance benefits,

shall be entitled to a parent’s insurance benefit for each month beginning with the first month after August 1950 in which such parent becomes so entitled to such parent’s insurance benefits and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: such parent dies, marries, or becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding 82 1/2 percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), such parent’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to 82 1/2 percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.

(B) For any month for which more than one parent is entitled to parent’s insurance benefits on the basis of such deceased individual’s wages and self-employment income, such benefit for each such parent for such month shall (except as provided in subparagraph (C)) be equal to 75 percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.

(C) In any case in which—

(i) any parent is entitled to a parent’s insurance benefit for a month on the basis of a deceased individual’s wages and self-employment income, and

(ii) another parent of such deceased individual is entitled to a parent’s insurance benefit for such month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, and on the basis of an application filed after such month and after the month in which the application for the parent’s benefits referred to in clause (i) was filed,

the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit of the parent referred to in clause (i) for the month referred to in such clause shall be determined under subparagraph (A) instead of subparagraph (B) and the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit of a parent referred to in clause (ii) for such month shall be equal to 150 percent of the primary insurance amount of the deceased individual minus the amount (before the application of section 203(a)) of the benefit for such month of the parent referred to in clause (i).

(3) As used in this subsection, the term “parent” means the mother or father of an individual, a stepparent of an individual by a marriage contracted before such individual attained the age of sixteen, or an adopting parent by whom an individual was adopted before he attained the age of sixteen.

(4) In the case of a parent who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under this subsection or subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g), or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d),

such parent’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) but subject to subsection (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

Lump-Sum Death Payments

(i) Upon the death, after August 1950, of an individual who died a fully or currently insured individual, an amount equal to three times such individual’s primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to the amendments made by section 2201 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981[24], relating to the repeal of the minimum benefit provisions), or an amount equal to $255, whichever is the smaller, shall be paid in a lump sum to the person, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the widow or widower of the deceased and to have been living in the same household with the deceased at the time of death. If there is no such person, or if such person dies before receiving payment, then such amount shall be paid—

(1) to a widow (as defined in section 216(c)) or widower (as defined in section 216(g)) who is entitled (or would have been so entitled had a timely application been filed), on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, to benefits under subsection (e), (f), or (g) of this section for the month in which occurred such individual’s death; or

(2) if no person qualifies for payment under paragraph (1), or if such person dies before receiving payment, in equal shares to each person who is entitled (or would have been so entitled had a timely application been filed), on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, to benefits under subsection (d) of this section for the month in which occurred such individual’s death.

No payment shall be made to any person under this subsection unless application therefor shall have been filed, by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent), prior to the expiration of two years after the date of death of such insured individual, or unless such person was entitled to wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died. In the case of any individual who died outside the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia after December 1953 and before January 1, 1957, whose death occurred while he was in the active military or naval service of the United States, and who is returned to any of such States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa for interment or reinterment, the provisions of the preceding sentence shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence of this subsection if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment. In the case of any individual who died outside the fifty States and the District of Columbia after December 1956 while he was performing service, as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 210(l)(1) are applicable, and who is returned to any State, or to any Territory or possession of the United States, for interment or reinterment, the provisions of the third sentence of this subsection shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence of this subsection if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment.

Application for Monthly Insurance Benefits

(j)(1) Subject to the limitations contained in paragraph (4), an individual who would have been entitled to a benefit under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) for any month after August 1950 had he filed application therefor prior to the end of such month shall be entitled to such benefit for such month if he files application therefor prior to—

(A) the end of the twelfth month immediately succeeding such month in any case where the individual (i) is filing application for a benefit under subsection (e) or (f), and satisfies paragraph (1)(B) of such subsection by reason of clause (ii) thereof, or (ii) is filing application for a benefit under subsection (b), (c), or (d) on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a person entitled to disability insurance benefits, or

(B) the end of the sixth month immediately succeeding such month in any case where subparagraph (A) does not apply.

Any benefit under this title for a month prior to the month in which application is filed shall be reduced, to any extent that may be necessary, so that it will not render erroneous any benefit which, before the filing of such application, the Commissioner of Social Security has certified for payment for such prior month.

(2) An application for any monthly benefits under this section filed before the first month in which the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits shall be deemed a valid application (and shall be deemed to have been filed in such first month) only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits before the Commissioner of Social Security makes a final decision on the application and no request under section 205(b) for notice and opportunity for a hearing thereon is made or, if such a request is made, before a decision based upon the evidence adduced at the hearing is made (regardless of whether such decision becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security).

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), an individual may, at his option, waive entitlement to any benefit referred to in paragraph (1) for any one or more consecutive months (beginning with the earliest month for which such individual would otherwise be entitled to such benefit) which occur before the month in which such individual files application for such benefit; and, in such case, such individual shall not be considered as entitled to such benefits for any such month or months before such individual filed such application. An individual shall be deemed to have waived such entitlement for any such month for which such benefit would, under the second sentence of paragraph (1), be reduced to zero.

(4)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no individual shall be entitled to a monthly benefit under subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), or (f) for any month prior to the month in which he or she files an application for benefits under that subsection if the amount of the monthly benefit to which such individual would otherwise be entitled for any such month would be subject to reduction pursuant to subsection (q).

(B)(i) If the individual applying for retroactive benefits is a widow, surviving divorced wife, or widower and is under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)), and such individual would, except for subparagraph (A), be entitled to retroactive benefits as a disabled widow or widower or disabled surviving divorced wife for any month before attaining the age of 60, then subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to such month or any subsequent month.

(ii) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to a benefit under subsection (e) or (f) for the month immediately preceding the month of application, if the insured individual died in that preceding month.

(iii) As used in this subparagraph, the term “retroactive benefits” means benefits to which an individual becomes entitled for a month prior to the month in which application for such benefits is filed.

(5) In any case in which it is determined to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that an individual failed as of any date to apply for monthly insurance benefits under this title by reason of misinformation provided to such individual by any officer or employee of the Social Security Administration relating to such individual’s eligibility for benefits under this title, such individual shall be deemed to have applied for such benefits on the later of—

(A) the date on which such misinformation was provided to such individual, or

(B) the date on which such individual met all requirements for entitlement to such benefits (other than application therefor).

Simultaneous Entitlement to Benefits

(k)(1) A child, entitled to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, who would be entitled, on filing application, to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of some other insured individual, shall be deemed entitled, subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) hereof, to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such other individual if an application for child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such other individual has been filed by any other child who would, on filing application, be entitled to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of both such insured individuals.

(2)(A) Any child who under the preceding provisions of this section is entitled for any month to child’s insurance benefits on the wages and self-employment income of more than one insured individual shall, notwithstanding such provisions, be entitled to only one of such child’s insurance benefits for such month. Such child’s insurance benefits for such month shall be the benefit based on the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual who has the greatest primary insurance amount, except that such child’s insurance benefits for such month shall be the largest benefit to which such child could be entitled under subsection (d) (without the application of section 203(a)) or subsection (m) if entitlement to such benefit would not, with respect to any person, result in a benefit lower (after the application of section 203(a)) than the benefit which would be applicable if such child were entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the individual with the greatest primary insurance amount. Where more than one child is entitled to child’s insurance benefits pursuant to the preceding provisions of this paragraph, each such child who is entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the same insured individuals shall be entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the same such insured individual.

(B) Any individual (other than an individual to whom subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) applies) who, under the preceding provisions of this section and under the provisions of section 223, is entitled for any month to more than one monthly insurance benefit (other than an old-age or disability insurance benefit) under this title shall be entitled to only one such monthly benefit for such month, such benefit to be the largest of the monthly benefits to which he (but for this subparagraph (B)) would otherwise be entitled for such month. Any individual who is entitled for any month to more than one widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit to which subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) applies shall be entitled to only one such benefit for such month, such benefit to be the largest of such benefits.

(3)(A) If an individual is entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit for any month and to any other monthly insurance benefit for such month, such other insurance benefit for such month, after any reduction under subsection (q), subsection (e)(2) or (f)(2), and any reduction under section 203(a), shall be reduced, but not below zero, by an amount equal to such old-age or disability insurance benefit (after reduction under such subsection (q)).

(B) If an individual is entitled for any month to a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit to which subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) applies and to any other monthly insurance benefit under section 202 (other than an old-age insurance benefit), such other insurance benefit for such month, after any reduction under subparagraph (A), any reduction under subsection (q), and any reduction under section 203(a), shall be reduced, but not below zero, by an amount equal to such widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit after any reduction or reductions under such subparagraph (A) and such section 203(a).

(4) Any individual who, under this section and section 223, is entitled for any month to both an old-age insurance benefit and a disability insurance benefit under this title shall be entitled to only the larger of such benefits for such month, except that, if such individual so elects, he shall instead be entitled to only the smaller of such benefits for such month.

(5)(A) The amount of a monthly insurance benefit of any individual for each month under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) (as determined after application of the provisions of subsection (q) and the preceding provisions of this subsection) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such individual for such month which is based upon such individual’s earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 218(b)(2)) if, during any portion of the last 60 months of such service ending with the last day such individual was employed by such entity—

(i) such service did not constitute “employment” as defined in section 210, or

(ii) such service was being performed while in the service of the Federal Government, and constituted “employment” as so defined solely by reason of—

(I) clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (G) of section 210(a)(5), where the lump-sum payment described in such clause (ii) or the cessation of coverage described in such clause (iii) (whichever is applicable) was received or occurred on or after January 1, 1988, or

(II) an election to become subject to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980[25] made pursuant to law after December 31, 1987,

unless subparagraph (B) applies.

The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

(B)(i) Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits based wholly on service as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 210(m)).

(ii) Subparagraph (A)(ii) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits based in whole or in part on service which constituted “employment” as defined in section 210 if such service was performed for at least 60 months in the aggregate during the period beginning January 1, 1988, and ending with the close of the first calendar month as of the end of which such individual is eligible for benefits under this subsection and has made a valid application for such benefits.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, any periodic benefit which otherwise meets the requirements of subparagraph (A), but which is paid on other than a monthly basis, shall be allocated on a basis equivalent to a monthly benefit (as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security) and such equivalent monthly benefit shall constitute a monthly periodic benefit for purposes of subparagraph (A). For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “periodic benefit” includes a benefit payable in a lump sum if it is a commutation of, or a substitute for, periodic payments.

Entitlement to Survivor Benefits Under Railroad Retirement Act

(l) If any person would be entitled, upon filing application therefor to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974[26], or to a lump–sum payment under section 6(b) of such Act, with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act) no lump–sum death payment, and no monthly benefit for the month in which such employee died or for any month thereafter, shall be paid under this section to any person on the basis of the wages and self–employment income of such employee.

(m) [Repealed.[27]]

Termination of Benefits Upon Removal of Primary Beneficiary

(n)(1) If any individual is (after the date of enactment of this subsection[28]) removed under section 237(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 212(a)(6)(A) of such Act, then, notwithstanding any other provisions of this title—

(A) no monthly benefit under this section or section 223 shall be paid to such individual, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for any month occurring (i) after the month in which the Commissioner of Social Security is notified by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security that such individual has been so removed, and (ii) before the month in which such individual is thereafter lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence,

(B) if no benefit could be paid to such individual (or if no benefit could be paid to him if he were alive) for any month by reason of subparagraph (A), no monthly benefit under this section shall be paid, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for such month to any other person who is not a citizen of the United States and is outside the United States for any part of such month, and

(C) no lump-sum death payment shall be made on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income if he dies (i) in or after the month in which such notice is received, and (ii) before the month in which he is thereafter lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.

Section 203(b), (c), and (d) of this Act shall not apply with respect to any such individual for any month for which no monthly benefit may be paid to him by reason of this paragraph.

(2) As soon as practicable after the removal of any individual under any of the paragraphs of section 237(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 212(a)(6)(A) of such Act[29], the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of such removal.

(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, an individual against whom a final order of removal has been issued under paragraph (4)(D) of section 237(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (relating to participating in Nazi persecutions or genocide) shall be considered to have been removed under such paragraph (4)(D) as of the date on which such order became final.

Application for Benefits by Survivors of Members and Former Members of the Uniformed Services

(o) In the case of any individual who would be entitled to benefits under subsection (d), (e), (g), or (h) upon filing proper application therefor, the filing with the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs by or on behalf of such individual of an application for such benefits, on the form described in section 3005 of title 38, United States Code[30], shall satisfy the requirement of such subsection (d), (e), (g), or (h) that an application for such benefits be filed.

Extension of Period for Filing Proof of Support and Applications for Lump-Sum Death Payment

(p) In any case in which there is a failure—

(1) to file proof of support under subparagraph (B) of subsection (h)(1), or under clause (B) of subsection (f)(1) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950[31], within the period prescribed by such subparagraph or clause, or

(2) to file, in the case of a death after 1946, application for a lump-sum death payment under subsection (i), or under subsection (g) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, within the period prescribed by such subsection,

any such proof or application, as the case may be, which is filed after the expiration of such period shall be deemed to have been filed within such period if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that there was good cause for failure to file such proof or application within such period. The determination of what constitutes good cause for purposes of this subsection shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security.

Reduction of Benefit Amounts for Certain Beneficiaries

(q)(1) Subject to paragraph (9), if the first month for which an individual is entitled to an old-age, wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age, the amount of such benefit for such month and for any subsequent month shall, subject to the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection, be reduced by—

(A) 5/9 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is an old-age insurance benefit, 25/36 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, or 19/40 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit, multiplied by

(B)(i) the number of months in the reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (6)), if such benefit is for a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age, or

(ii) if less, the number of such months in the adjusted reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (7)), if such benefit is (I) for the month in which such individual attains age 62, or (II) for the month in which such individual attains retirement age.

(2) If an individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit for a month after a month for which such individual was entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, such disability insurance benefit for each month shall be reduced by the amount such old-age insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraphs (1) and (4) for such month had such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)) in the first month for which he most recently became entitled to a disability insurance benefit.

(3)(A) If the first month for which an individual both is entitled to a wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit and has attained age 62 (in the case of a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit) or age 50 (in the case of a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit) is a month for which such individual is also entitled to—

(i) an old-age insurance benefit (to which such individual was first entitled for a month before he attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l))), or

(ii) a disability insurance benefit,

then in lieu of any reduction under paragraph (1) (but subject to the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) such wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit for each month shall be reduced as provided in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D).

(B) For any month for which such individual is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit and is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit, such individual’s wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit shall be reduced by the sum of—

(i) the amount by which such old-age insurance benefit is reduced under paragraph (1) for such month, and

(ii) the amount by which such wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraph (1) for such month if it were equal to the excess of such wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection) over such old-age insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection).

(C) For any month for which such individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit, such individual’s wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit shall be reduced by the sum of—

(i) the amount by which such disability insurance benefit is reduced under paragraph (2) for such month (if such paragraph applied to such benefit), and

(ii) the amount by which such wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraph (1) for such month if it were equal to the excess of such wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection) over such disability insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection).

(D) For any month for which such individual is entitled neither to an old-age insurance benefit nor to a disability insurance benefit, such individual’s wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit shall be reduced by the amount by which it would be reduced under paragraph (1).

(E) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, if the first month for which an individual is entitled to a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit is a month for which such individual is also entitled to an old-age insurance benefit to which such individual was first entitled for that month or for a month before she or he became entitled to a widow’s or widower’s benefit, the reduction in such widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit shall be determined under paragraph (1).

(4) If—

(A) an individual is or was entitled to a benefit subject to reduction under paragraph (1) or (3) of this subsection, and

(B) such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based,

then the amount of the reduction of such benefit (after the application of any adjustment under paragraph (7)) for each month beginning with the month of such increase in the primary insurance amount shall be computed under paragraph (1) or (3), whichever applies, as though the increased primary insurance amount had been in effect for and after the month for which the individual first became entitled to such monthly benefit reduced under such paragraph (1) or (3).

(5)(A) No wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit shall be reduced under this subsection—

(i) for any month before the first month for which there is in effect a certificate filed by him or her with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which he or she elects to receive wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits reduced as provided in this subsection, or

(ii) for any month in which he or she has in his or her care (individually or jointly with the person on whose wages and self-employment income the wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit is based) a child of such person entitled to child’s insurance benefits.

(B) Any certificate described in subparagraph (A)(i) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection (and for purposes of preventing deductions under section 203(c)(2))—

(i) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and

(ii) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;

except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which he or she attains age 62, nor shall it be effective for any month to which subparagraph (A)(ii) applies.

(C) If an individual does not have in his or her care a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii) in the first month for which he or she is entitled to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, and if such first month is a month before the month in which he or she attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), he or she shall be deemed to have filed in such first month the certificate described in subparagraph (A)(i).

(D) No widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit for a month in which he or she has in his or her care a child of his or her deceased spouse (or deceased former spouse) entitled to child’s insurance benefits shall be reduced under this subsection below the amount to which he or she would have been entitled had he or she been entitled for such month to mother’s or father’s insurance benefits on the basis of his or her deceased spouse’s (or deceased former spouse’s) wages and self-employment income.

(6) For purposes of this subsection, the “reduction period” for an individual’s old-age, wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit is the period—

(A) beginning—

(i) in the case of an old-age insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which such individual is entitled to such benefit,

(ii) in the case of a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which a certificate described in paragraph (5)(A)(i) is effective, or

(iii) in the case of a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which such individual is entitled to such benefit or the first day of the month in which such individual attains age 60, whichever is the later, and

(B) ending with the last day of the month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age.

(7) For purposes of this subsection, the “adjusted reduction period” for an individual’s old-age, wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit is the reduction period prescribed in paragraph (6) for such benefit, excluding—

(A) any month in which such benefit was subject to deductions under section 203(b), 203(c)(1), 203(d)(1), or 222(b),

(B) in the case of wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits, any month in which such individual had in his or her care (individually or jointly with the person on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based) a child of such person entitled to child’s insurance benefits,

(C) in the case of wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits, any month for which such individual was not entitled to such benefits because of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits,

(D) in the case of widow’s or widower’s insurance benefits, any month in which the reduction in the amount of such benefit was determined under paragraph (5)(D),

(E) in the case of widow’s or widower’s insurance benefits, any month before the month in which she or he attained age 62, and also for any later month before the month in which she or he attained retirement age, for which she or he was not entitled to such benefit because of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits, and

(F) in the case of old-age insurance benefits, any month for which such individual was entitled to a disability insurance benefit.

(8) This subsection shall be applied after reduction under section 203(a) and before application of section 215(g). If the amount of any reduction computed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) is not a multiple of $0.10, it shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

(9) The amount of the reduction for early retirement specified in paragraph (1)—

(A) for old-age insurance benefits, wife’s insurance benefits, and husband’s insurance benefits, shall be the amount specified in such paragraph for the first 36 months of the reduction period (as defined in paragraph (6)) or adjusted reduction period (as defined in paragraph (7)), and five-twelfths of 1 percent for any additional months included in such periods; and

(B) for widow’s insurance benefits and widower’s insurance benefits, shall be periodically revised by the Commissioner of Social Security such that—

(i) the amount of the reduction at early retirement age as defined in section 216(l) shall be 28.5 percent of the full benefit; and

(ii) the amount of the reduction for each month in the reduction period (specified in paragraph (6)) or the adjusted reduction period (specified in paragraph (7)) shall be established by linear interpolation between 28.5 percent at the month of attainment of early retirement age and 0 percent at the month of attainment of retirement age.

(10) For purposes of applying paragraph (4), with respect to monthly benefits payable for any month after December 1977 to an individual who was entitled to a monthly benefit as reduced under paragraph (1) or (3) prior to January 1978, the amount of reduction in such benefit for the first month for which such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based and for all subsequent months (and similarly for all subsequent increases) shall be increased by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in such primary insurance amount (such increase being made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (8)). In the case of an individual whose reduced benefit under this section is increased as a result of the use of an adjusted reduction period (in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (3) of this subsection), then for the first month for which such increase is effective, and for all subsequent months, the amount of such reduction (after the application of the previous sentence, if applicable) shall be determined—

(A) in the case of old-age, wife’s, and husband’s insurance benefits, by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the adjusted reduction period to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period,

(B) in the case of widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits for the month in which such individual attains age 62, by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the reduction period beginning with age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent, plus the number of months in the adjusted reduction period prior to age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent, and

(C) in the case of widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits for the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the adjusted reduction period multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period beginning with age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent, plus the number of months in the adjusted reduction period prior to age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent,

such determination being made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (8).

(11) When an individual is entitled to more than one monthly benefit under this title and one or more of such benefits are reduced under this subsection, paragraph (10) shall apply separately to each such benefit reduced under this subsection before the application of subsection (k) (pertaining to the method by which monthly benefits are offset when an individual is entitled to more than one kind of benefit) and the application of this paragraph shall operate in conjunction with paragraph (3).

Presumed Filing of Application by Individuals Eligible for Old-Age Insurance Benefits and for Wife’s or Husband’s Insurance Benefits

(r)(1) If the first month for which an individual is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), and if such individual is eligible for a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit for such first month, such individual shall be deemed to have filed an application in such month for wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits.

(2) If the first month for which an individual is entitled to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit reduced under subsection (q) is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)), and if such individual is eligible (but for section 202(k)(4)) for an old-age insurance benefit for such first month, such individual shall be deemed to have filed an application for old-age insurance benefits—

(A) in such month, or

(B) if such individual is also entitled to a disability insurance benefit for such month, in the first subsequent month for which such individual is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit.

(3) For purposes of this subsection, an individual shall be deemed eligible for a benefit for a month if, upon filing application therefor in such month, he would be entitled to such benefit for such month.

Child Over Specified Age to be Disregarded for Certain Benefit Purposes Unless Disabled

(s)(1) For the purposes of subsections (b)(1), (c)(1), (g)(1), (q)(5), and (q)(7) of this section and paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of section 203(c), a child who is entitled to child’s insurance benefits under subsection (d) for any month, and who has attained the age of 16 but is not in such month under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)), shall be deemed not entitled to such benefits for such month, unless he was under such a disability in the third month before such month.

(2) So much of subsections (b)(3), (c)(4), (d)(5), (g)(3), and (h)(4) of this section as precedes the semicolon, shall not apply in the case of any child unless such child, at the time of the marriage referred to therein, was under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)) or had been under such a disability in the third month before the month in which such marriage occurred.

(3) The last sentence of subsection (c) of section 203, subsection (f)(1)(C) of section 203, and subsections (b)(3)(B), (c)(6)(B), (f)(3)(B), and (g)(6)(B) of section 216 shall not apply in the case of any child with respect to any month referred to therein unless in such month or the third month prior thereto such child was under a disability (as defined in section 223(d)).

Suspension of Benefits of Aliens Who Are Outside the United States; Residency Requirements for Dependents and Survivors

(t)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 223 to any individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States for any month which is—

(A) after the sixth consecutive calendar month during all of which the Commissioner of Social Security finds, on the basis of information furnished to the Commissioner by the Attorney General or information which otherwise comes to the Commissioner’s attention, that such individual is outside the United States, and

(B) prior to the first month thereafter for all of which such individual has been in the United States.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, after an individual has been outside the United States for any period of thirty consecutive days he shall be treated as remaining outside the United States until he has been in the United States for a period of thirty consecutive days.

(2) Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1) shall not apply to any individual who is a citizen of a foreign country which the Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and under which—

(A) periodic benefits, or the actuarial equivalent thereof, are paid on account of old age, retirement, or death, and

(B) individuals who are citizens of the United States but not citizens of such foreign country and who qualify for such benefits are permitted to receive such benefits or the actuarial equivalent thereof while outside such foreign country without regard to the duration of the absence.

(3) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in any case where its application would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on the date of the enactment of this subsection[32].

(4) Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1) shall not apply to any benefit for any month if—

(A) not less than forty of the quarters elapsing before such month are quarters of coverage for the individual on whose wages; and self-employment income such benefit is based, or

(B) the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based has, before such month, resided in the United States for a period or periods aggregating ten years or more, or

(C) the individual entitled to such benefit is outside the United States while in the active military or naval service of the United States, or

(D) the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based died, before such month, either (i) while on active duty or inactive duty training (as those terms are defined in section 210(l)(2) and (3)) as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 210(m)), or (ii) as the result of a disease or injury which the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines was incurred or aggravated in line of duty while on active duty (as defined in section 210(l)(2)), or an injury which he determines was incurred or aggravated in line of duty while on inactive duty training (as defined in section 210(l)(3)), as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 210(m)), if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines that such individual was discharged or released from the period of such active duty or inactive duty training under conditions other than dishonorable, and if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security his determinations with respect to such individual under this clause, or

(E) the individual on whose employment such benefit is based had been in service covered by the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974[33] which was treated as employment covered by this Act pursuant to the provisions of section 5(k)(1) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or section 18(2) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974[34];

except that subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of any individual who is a citizen of a foreign country that has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and which satisfies subparagraph (A) but not subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2), or who is a citizen of a foreign country that has no social insurance or pension system of general application if at any time within five years prior to the month in which the Social Security Amendments of 1967 are enacted[35] (or the first month thereafter for which his benefits are subject to suspension under paragraph (1)) payments to individuals residing in such country were withheld by the Treasury Department under the first section of the Act of October 9, 1940 (31 U.S.C. 123)[36].

(5) No person who is, or upon application would be, entitled to a monthly benefit under this section for December 1956 shall be deprived, by reason of paragraph (1), of such benefit or any other benefit based on the wages and self-employment income of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such monthly benefit for December 1956 is based.

(6) If an individual is outside the United States when he dies and no benefit may, by reason of paragraph (1) or (10), be paid to him for the month preceding the month in which he dies, no lump-sum death payment may be made on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income.

(7) Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 203 shall not apply with respect to any individual for any month for which no monthly benefit may be paid to him by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(8) The Attorney General shall certify to the Commissioner of Social Security such information regarding aliens who depart from the United States to any foreign country (other than a foreign country which is territorially contiguous to the continental United States) as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to carry out the purposes of this subsection and shall otherwise aid, assist, and cooperate with the Commissioner of Social Security in obtaining such other information as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(9) No payments shall be made under part A of title XVIII with respect to items or services furnished to an individual in any month for which the prohibition in paragraph (1) against payment of benefits to him is applicable (or would be if he were entitled to any such benefits).

(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 223, for any month beginning after June 30, 1968, to an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States and who resides during such month in a foreign country if payments for such month to individuals residing in such country are withheld by the Treasury Department under the first section of the Act of October 9, 1940 (31 U.S.C. 123)[37].

(11)(A) Paragraph (2) and subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E) of paragraph (4) shall apply with respect to an individual’s monthly benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) only if such individual meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits.

(B) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if such individual has resided in the United States, and while so residing bore a spousal relationship to the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, for a total period of not less than 5 years. For purposes of this subparagraph, a period of time for which an individual bears a spousal relationship to another person consists of a period throughout which the individual has been, with respect to such other person, a wife, a husband, a widow, a widower, a divorced wife, a divorced husband, a surviving divorced wife, a surviving divorced husband, a surviving divorced mother, a surviving divorced father, or (as applicable in the course of such period) any two or more of the foregoing.

(C) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (d) meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if—

(i)(I) such individual has resided in the United States (as the child of the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based) for a total period of not less than 5 years, or

(II) the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, and the individual’s other parent (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3)), if any, have each resided in the United States for a total period of not less than 5 years (or died while residing in the United States), and

(ii) in the case of an individual entitled to such benefits as an adopted child, such individual was adopted within the United States by the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, and has lived in the United States with such person and received at least one-half of his or her support from such person for a period (beginning before such individual attained age 18) consisting of—

(I) the year immediately before the month in which such person became eligible for old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, whichever occurred first, or

(II) if such person had a period of disability which continued until he or she became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, the year immediately before the month in which such period of disability began.

(D) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (h) meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if such individual has resided in the United States, and while so residing was a parent (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3)) of the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, for a total period of not less than 5 years.

(E) This paragraph shall not apply with respect to any individual who is a citizen or resident of a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement in force concluded pursuant to section 233, except to the extent provided by such agreement.

Conviction of Subversive Activities, Etc.

(u)(1) If any individual is convicted of any offense (committed after the date of the enactment of this subsection[38]) under—

(A) chapter 37 (relating to espionage and censorship), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason, sedition, and subversive activities) of title 18 of the United States Code[39], or

(B) section 4 of the Internal Security Act of 1950[40], as amended,

then the court may, in addition to all other penalties provided by law, impose a penalty that in determining whether any monthly insurance benefit under this section or section 223 is payable to such individual for the month in which he is convicted or for any month thereafter, in determining the amount of any such benefit payable to such individual for any such month, and in determining whether such individual is entitled to insurance benefits under part A of title XVIII for any such month, there shall not be taken into account—

(C) any wages paid to such individual or to any other individual in the calendar year in which such conviction occurs or in any prior calendar year, and

(D) any net earnings from self-employment derived by such individual or by any other individual during a taxable year in which such conviction occurs or during any prior taxable year.

(2) As soon as practicable after an additional penalty has, pursuant to paragraph (1), been imposed with respect to any individual, the Attorney General shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of such imposition.

(3) If any individual with respect to whom an additional penalty has been imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) is granted a pardon of the offense by the President of the United States, such additional penalty shall not apply for any month beginning after the date on which such pardon is granted.

Waiver of Benefits

(v)(1) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title, and subject to paragraph (3), in the case of any individual who files a waiver pursuant to section 1402(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[41] and is granted a tax exemption thereunder, no benefits or other payments shall be payable under this title to him, no payments shall be made on his behalf under part A of title XVIII, and no benefits or other payments under this title shall be payable on the basis of his wages and self-employment income to any other person, after the filing of such waiver.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, and subject to paragraph (3), in the case of any individual who files a waiver pursuant to section 3127 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is granted a tax exemption thereunder, no benefits or other payments shall be payable under this title to him, no payments shall be made on his behalf under part A of title XVIII, and no benefits or other payments under this title shall be payable on the basis of his wages and self-employment income to any other person, after the filing of such waiver.

(3) If, after an exemption referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) is granted to an individual, such exemption ceases to be effective, the waiver referred to in such paragraph shall cease to be applicable in the case of benefits and other payments under this title and part A of title XVIII to the extent based on—

(A) his wages for and after the calendar year following the calendar year in which occurs the failure to meet the requirements of section 1402(g) or 3127 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[42] on which the cessation of such exemption is based, and

(B) his self-employment income for and after the taxable year in which occurs such failure.

Increase in Old-Age Insurance Benefit Amounts on Account of Delayed Retirement

(w)(1) The amount of an old-age insurance benefit (other than a benefit based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 215(a)(3) as in effect in December 1978 or section 215(a)(1)(C)(i) as in effect thereafter) which is payable without regard to this subsection to an individual shall be increased by—

(A) the applicable percentage (as determined under paragraph (6)) of such amount, multiplied by

(B) the number (if any) of the increment months for such individual.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the number of increment months for any individual shall be a number equal to the total number of the months—

(A) which have elapsed after the month before the month in which such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l)) or (if later) December 1970 and prior to the month in which such individual attained age 70, and

(B) with respect to which—

(i) such individual was a fully insured individual (as defined in section 214(a)),

(ii) such individual either was not entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or, if so entitled, did not receive benefits pursuant to a request by such individual that benefits not be paid, and

(iii) such individual was not subject to a penalty imposed under section 1129A.

(3) For purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (1), a determination shall be made under paragraph (2) for each year, beginning with 1972, of the total number of an individual’s increment months through the year for which the determination is made and the total so determined shall be applicable to such individual’s old-age insurance benefits beginning with benefits for January of the year following the year for which such determination is made; except that the total number applicable in the case of an individual who attains age 70 after 1972 shall be determined through the month before the month in which he attains such age and shall be applicable to his old-age insurance benefit beginning with the month in which he attains such age.

(4) This subsection shall be applied after reduction under section 203(a).

(5) If an individual’s primary insurance amount is determined under paragraph (3) of section 215(a) as in effect in December 1978, or section 215(a)(1)(C)(i) as in effect thereafter, and, as a result of this subsection, he would be entitled to a higher old-age insurance benefit if his primary insurance amount were determined under section 215(a) (whether before, in, or after December 1978) without regard to such paragraph, such individual’s old-age insurance benefit based upon his primary insurance amount determined under such paragraph shall be increased by an amount equal to the difference between such benefit and the benefit to which he would be entitled if his primary insurance amount were determined under such section without regard to such paragraph.

(6) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the “applicable percentage” is—

(A) 1/12 of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in any calendar year before 1979;

(B) 1/4 of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in any calendar year after 1978 and before 1987;

(C) in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in a calendar year after 1986 and before 2005, a percentage equal to the applicable percentage in effect under this paragraph for persons who first became eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in the preceding calendar year (as increased pursuant to this subparagraph), plus 1/24 of 1 percent if the calendar year in which that particular individual first becomes eligible for such benefit is not evenly divisible by 2; and

(D) 2/3 of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in a calendar year after 2004.

Limitation on Payments to Prisoners, Certain Other Inmates of Publicly Funded Institutions, Fugitives, Probationers, and Parolees

(x)(1)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 223 to any individual for any month ending with or during or beginning with or during a period of more than 30 days throughout all of which such individual—

(i) is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility pursuant to his conviction of a criminal offense,

(ii) is confined by court order in an institution at public expense in connection with—

(I) a verdict or finding that the individual is guilty but insane, with respect to a criminal offense,

(II) a verdict or finding that the individual is not guilty of such an offense by reason of insanity,

(III) a finding that such individual is incompetent to stand trial under an allegation of such an offense, or

(IV) a similar verdict or finding with respect to such an offense based on similar factors (such as a mental disease, a mental defect, or mental incompetence),

(iii) immediately upon completion of confinement as described in clause (i) pursuant to conviction of a criminal offense an element of which is sexual activity, is confined by court order in an institution at public expense pursuant to a finding that the individual is a sexually dangerous person or a sexual predator or a similar finding,

(iv) is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the person flees, for a crime, or an attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the person flees, or, in jurisdictions that do not define crimes as felonies, is punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year regardless of the actual sentence imposed, or

(v) is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.

(B)(i) For purposes of clause (i) of subparagraph (A), an individual shall not be considered confined in an institution comprising a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility during any month throughout which such individual is residing outside such institution at no expense (other than the cost of monitoring) to such institution or the penal system or to any agency to which the penal system has transferred jurisdiction over the individual.

(ii) For purposes of clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), an individual confined in an institution as described in such clause (ii) shall be treated as remaining so confined until—

(I) he or she is released from the care and supervision of such institution, and

(II) such institution ceases to meet the individual’s basic living needs.

(iii) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Commissioner shall, for good cause shown, pay the individual benefits that have been withheld or would otherwise be withheld pursuant to clause (iv) or (v) of subparagraph (A) if the Commissioner determines that—

(I) a court of competent jurisdiction has found the individual not guilty of the criminal offense, dismissed the charges relating to the criminal offense, vacated the warrant for arrest of the individual for the criminal offense, or issued any similar exonerating order (or taken similar exonerating action), or

(II) the individual was erroneously implicated in connection with the criminal offense by reason of identity fraud.

(iv) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Commissioner may, for good cause shown based on mitigating circumstances, pay the individual benefits that have been withheld or would otherwise be withheld pursuant to clause (iv) or (v) of subparagraph (A) if the Commissioner determines that—

(I) the offense described in clause (iv) or underlying the imposition of the probation or parole described in clause (v) was nonviolent and not drug-related, and

(II) in the case of an individual from whom benefits have been withheld or otherwise would be withheld pursuant to subparagraph (A)(v), the action that resulted in the violation of a condition of probation or parole was nonviolent and not drug-related.

(2) Benefits which would be payable to any individual (other than a confined individual to whom benefits are not payable by reason of paragraph (1)) under this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such a confined individual but for the provisions of paragraph (1), shall be payable as though such confined individual were receiving such benefits under this section or section 223.

(3)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5, United States Code[43], or any other provision of Federal or State law, any agency of the United States Government or of any State (or political subdivision thereof) shall make available to the Commissioner of Social Security, upon written request, the name and social security account number of any individual who is confined as described in paragraph (1) if the confinement is under the jurisdiction of such agency and the Commissioner of Social Security requires such information to carry out the provisions of this section.

(B)(i) The Commissioner shall enter into an agreement under this subparagraph with any interested State or local institution comprising a jail, prison, penal institution, or correctional facility, or comprising any other institution a purpose of which is to confine individuals as described in paragraph (1)(A)(ii). Under such agreement—

(I) the institution shall provide to the Commissioner, on a monthly basis and in a manner specified by the Commissioner, the first, middle, and last[44] names[45] dates of birth, confinement commencement dates, dates of release or anticipated dates of release, dates of work release,[46] and, to the extent available to the institution, such other identifying information concerning the individuals confined in the institution as the Commissioner may require for the purpose of carrying out paragraph (1) and clause (iv) of this subparagraph[47] and other provisions of this title; and

(II) the Commissioner shall pay to the institution, with respect to information described in subclause (I) concerning each individual who is confined therein as described in paragraph (1)(A), who receives a benefit under this title for the month preceding the first month of such confinement, and whose benefit under this title is determined by the Commissioner to be not payable by reason of confinement based on the information provided by the institution, $400 (subject to reduction under clause (ii)) if the institution furnishes the information to the Commissioner within 30 days after the date such individual’s confinement in such institution begins, or $200 (subject to reduction under clause (ii)) if the institution furnishes the information after 30 days after such date but within 90 days after such date.

(ii) The dollar amounts specified in clause (i)(II) shall be reduced by 50 percent if the Commissioner is also required to make a payment to the institution with respect to the same individual under an agreement entered into under section 1611(e)(1)(I).

(iii) There are authorized to be transferred from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as appropriate, such sums as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner to make payments to institutions required by clause (i)(II).

(iv) The Commissioner shall maintain, and shall provide on a reimbursable basis, information obtained pursuant to agreements entered into under this paragraph to any agency administering a Federal or federally-assisted cash, food, or medical assistance program for eligibility and other administrative purposes under such program.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5, United States Code[48], or any other provision of Federal or State law (other than section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[49] and section 1106(c) of this Act), the Commissioner shall furnish any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer, upon the written request of the officer, with the current address, Social Security number, and photograph (if applicable) of any beneficiary under this title, if the officer furnishes the Commissioner with the name of the beneficiary, and other identifying information as reasonably required by the Commissioner to establish the unique identity of the beneficiary, and notifies the Commissioner that—

(i) the beneficiary is described in clause (iv) or (v) of paragraph (1)(A); and

(ii) the location or apprehension of the beneficiary is within the officer’s official duties.

(y) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monthly benefit under this title shall be payable to any alien in the United States for any month during which such alien is not lawfully present in the United States as determined by the Attorney General.


[18]  See Vol. II, P.L. 83-591, §1402(a)(1), with respect to certain payments under the Food Security Act of 1985 excluded from net earnings from self-employment.

See Vol. II, P.L. 88-525, §11(i) and (j), with respect to applications for food stamps.

See Vol. II, P.L. 97-377, §156(d), with respect to information furnished for determination of payments to surviving spouses of members of the Armed Forces.

See Vol. II, P.L. 98-21, §131(d)(2), with respect to the application requirement for individuals not entitled to benefits for December 1993.

See Vol. II, P.L. 106-170, §302, with respect to demonstration projects providing for reductions in disability benefits based on earnings.

[19]  October 1, 1980 [P.L. 96-473, §5(b); 94 Stat. 2265].

[20]  See Vol. II, P.L. 92-603.

[21]  See Vol. II, P.L. 93-66, §212(a).

[22]  See Vol. II, P.L. 93-66, §212.

[23]  See Vol. II, P.L. 92-603, §102(g).

[24]  P.L. 97-35.

[25]  See Vol. II, P.L. 96-465, Title I, Chapter 8.

[26]  See Vol. II, P.L. 75-162 [as amended by P.L. 93-445].

[27]  P.L. 97-35, §2201(b)(10); 95 Stat. 831;P.L. 97-123, §2(j)(1); 95 Stat. 1661.

[28]  September 1, 1954 [P.L. 83-761, §107; 68 Stat. 1083.

[29]  See Vol. II, P.L. 82-414, §§212(a)(6)(A)and 237(a).

[30]  See Vol. II, 38 U.S.C. 3005.

[31]  P.L. 81-734.

[32]  August 1, 1956 [P.L. 84-880, §118(a); 70 Stat. 835, 856].

[33]  P.L. 75-162.

[34]  See Vol. II, P.L. 75-162, §18(2).

[35]  January 2, 1968 [P.L. 90-248; 81 Stat. 821].

[36]  P.L. 97-258, §5(b), repealed the Act of October 9, 1940. See, instead, Vol. II, 31 U.S.C. 3329.

[37]  P.L. 97-258, §5(b), repealed the Act of October 9, 1940. See, instead, Vol. II, 31 U.S.C. 3329.

[38]  August 1, 1956 [P.L. 84-880, §121(a); 70 Stat. 838, 856].

[39]  See Vol. II, 18 U.S.C. chapters 37, 105, and 115.

[40]  See Vol. II, P.L. 81-831, §4.

[41]  See Vol. II, P.L. 83-591, §1402(g).

[42]  See Vol. II, P.L. 83-591, §§1402(g) and 3127.

[43]  See Vol. II, 5 U.S.C. 552a.

[44]  P.L. 113–67, §204(a)(1)(A), inserted “first. middle, and last”, effective December 26, 2013.

[45]  P.L. 113–67, §204(a)(1)(B), struck out the comma and inserted “or taxpayer identification numbers, prison assigned inmate numbers, last known addresses,”, effective December 26, 2013.

[46]  P.L. 113–67, §204(a)(1)(C), inserted “dates of release or anticipated dates of release, dates of work release,’’, effective December 26, 2013.

[47]  P.L. 113–67, §204(a)(1)(D), inserted “and clause (iv) of this subparagraph”, effective December 26, 2013.

[48]  See Vol. II, 5 U.S.C. 552a.

[49]  See Vol. II, P.L. 83-591, §6103.