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SPECIAL PAYMENT RULES FOR PARTICULAR ITEMS AND SERVICES

Sec1834[42 U.S.C. 1395m] (a) Payment for Durable Medical Equipment.—

(1) General rule for payment.—

(A) In general.—With respect to a covered item (as defined in paragraph (13)) for which payment is determined under this subsection, payment shall be made in the frequency specified in paragraphs (2) through (7) and in an amount equal to 80 percent of the payment basis described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Payment basis.—Subject to subparagraph (F)(i), the payment basis described in this subparagraph is the lesser of—

(i) the actual charge for the item, or

(ii) the payment amount recognized under paragraphs (2) through (7) of this subsection for the item;

except that clause (i) shall not apply if the covered item is furnished by a public home health agency (or by another home health agency which demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that a significant portion of its patients are low income) free of charge or at nominal charges to the public.

(C) Exclusive payment rule.—Subject to subparagraph (F)(ii), this subsection shall constitute the exclusive provision of this title for payment for covered items under this part or under part A to a home health agency.

(D) Reduction in fee schedules for certain items.—With respect to a seat-lift chair or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator furnished on or after April 1, 1990, the Secretary shall reduce the payment amount applied under subparagraph (B)(ii) for such an item by 15 percent, and, in the case of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator furnished on or after January 1, 1991, the Secretary shall further reduce such payment amount (as previously reduced) by 45 percent.

(E) Clinical conditions for coverage.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary shall establish standards for clinical conditions for payment for covered items under this subsection.

(ii) Requirements.—The standards established under clause (i) shall include the specification of types or classes of covered items that require, as a condition of payment under this subsection, a face-to-face examination of the individual by a physician (as defined in section 1861(r)), a physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or a clinical nurse specialist (as those terms are defined in section 1861(aa)(5)) and a prescription for the item.

(iii) Priority of establishment of standards.—In establishing the standards under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall first establish standards for those covered items for which the Secretary determines there has been a proliferation of use, consistent findings of charges for covered items that are not delivered, or consistent findings of falsification of documentation to provide for payment of such covered items under this part.

(iv) Standards for power wheelchairs.—Effective on the date of the enactment of this subparagraph [87]in the case of a covered item consisting of a motorized or power wheelchair for an individual, payment may not be made for such covered item unless a physician (as defined in section 1861(r)(1)), a physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or a clinical nurse specialist (as those terms are defined in section 1861(aa)(5)) has conducted a face-to-face examination of the individual and written a prescription for the item.

(v) Limitation on payment for covered items.—Payment may not be made for a covered item under this subsection unless the item meets any standards established under this subparagraph for clinical condition of coverage.

(F) Application of competitive acquisition; limitation of inherent reasonableness authority.—In the case of covered items furnished on or after January 1, 2011, subject to subparagraphs (G) and (H)[88]that are included in a competitive acquisition program in a competitive acquisition area under section 1847(a)

(i) the payment basis under this subsection for such items and services furnished in such area shall be the payment basis determined under such competitive acquisition program;

(ii) the Secretary may (and, in the case of covered items furnished on or after January 1, 2016, subject to clause (iii). shall) use information on the payment determined under such competitive acquisition programs to adjust the payment amount otherwise recognized under subparagraph (B)(ii) for an area that is not a competitive acquisition area under section 1847 and in the case of such adjustment, paragraph (10)(B) shall not be applied; and

(iii) in the case of covered items furnished on or after January 1, 2016, the Secretary shall continue to make such adjustments described in clause (ii) as, under such competitive acquisition programs, additional covered items are phased in or information is updated as contracts under section 1847(b)(3)(B).

(G) Use of information on competitive bid rates.— The Secretary shall specify by regulation the methodology to be used in applying the provisions of subparagraph (F)(ii) and subsection (h)(1)(H)(ii). In promulgating such regulation, the Secretary shall consider the costs of items and services in areas in which such provisions would be applied compared to the payment rates for such items and services in competitive acquisition areas.

(H)[89]Diabetic supplies.—

(i) In general.—On or after the date described in clause (ii), the payment amount under this part for diabetic supplies, including testing strips, that are non-mail order items (as defined by the Secretary) shall be equal to the single payment amounts established under the national mail order competition for diabetic supplies under section 1847.

(ii) Date described.—The date described in this clause is the date of the implementation of the single payment amounts under the national mail order competition for diabetic supplies under section 1847.

(2) Payment for inexpensive and other routinely purchased durable medical equipment.—

(A) In general.—Payment for an item of durable medical equipment (as defined in paragraph (13))—

(i) the purchase price of which does not exceed $150,

(ii) which the Secretary determines is acquired at least 75 percent of the time by purchase, or

(iii) which is an accessory used in conjunction with a nebulizer, aspirator, or a ventilator excluded under paragraph (3)(A),

shall be made on a rental basis or in a lump-sum amount for the purchase of the item. The payment amount recognized for purchase or rental of such equipment is the amount specified in subparagraph (B) for purchase or rental, except that the total amount of payments with respect to an item may not exceed the payment amount specified in subparagraph (B) with respect to the purchase of the item.

(B) Payment amount.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the amount specified in this subparagraph, with respect to the purchase or rental of an item furnished in a carrier service area—

(i) in 1989 and in 1990 is the average reasonable charge in the area for the purchase or rental, respectively, of the item for the 12-month period ending on June 30, 1987, increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 6-month period ending with December 1987;

(ii) in 1991 is the sum of (I) 67 percent of the local payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(i)(I) for 1991, and (II) 33 percent of the national limited payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(ii) for 1991;

(iii) in 1992 is the sum of (I) 33 percent of the local payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(i)(II) for 1992, and (II) 67 percent of the national limited payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(ii) for 1992; and

(iv) in 1993 and each subsequent year is the national limited payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(ii) for that year (reduced by 10 percent, in the case of a blood glucose testing strip furnished after 1997 for an individual with diabetes).

(C) Computation of local payment amount and national limited payment amount.—For purposes of subparagraph (B)—

(i) the local payment amount for an item or device for a year is equal to—

(I) for 1991, the amount specified in subparagraph (B)(i) for 1990 increased by the covered item update for 1991, and

(II) for 1992, 1993, and 1994 the amount determined under this clause for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for the year; and

(ii) the national limited payment amount for an item or device for a year is equal to—

(I) for 1991, the local payment amount determined under clause (i) for such item or device for that year, except that the national limited payment amount may not exceed 100 percent of the weighted average of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item for that year and may not be less than 85 percent of the weighted average of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item,

(II) for 1992 and 1993, the amount determined under this clause for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year,

(III) for 1994, the local payment amount determined under clause (i) for such item or device for that year, except that the national limited payment amount may not exceed 100 percent of the median of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item for that year and may not be less than 85 percent of the median of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item or device for that year, and

(IV) for each subsequent year, the amount determined under this clause for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year.

(3) Payment for items requiring frequent and substantial servicing.—

(A) In general.—Payment for a covered item (such as IPPB machines and ventilators, excluding ventilators that are either continuous airway pressure devices or intermittent assist devices with continuous airway pressure devices) for which there must be frequent and substantial servicing in order to avoid risk to the patient’s health shall be made on a monthly basis for the rental of the item and the amount recognized is the amount specified in subparagraph (B).

(B) Payment amount.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the amount specified in this subparagraph, with respect to an item or device furnished in a carrier service area—

(i) in 1989 and in 1990 is the average reasonable charge in the area for the rental of the item or device for the 12-month period ending with June 1987, increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 6-month period ending with December 1987;

(ii) in 1991 is the sum of (I) 67 percent of the local payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(i)(I) for 1991, and (II) 33 percent of the national limited payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(ii) for 1991;

(iii) in 1992 is the sum of (I) 33 percent of the local payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(i)(II) for 1992, and (II) 67 percent of the national limited payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(ii) for 1992; and

(iv) in 1993 and each subsequent year is the national limited payment amount for the item or device computed under subparagraph (C)(ii) for that year.

(C) Computation of local payment amount and national limited payment amount.—For purposes of subparagraph (B)—

(i) the local payment amount for an item or device for a year is equal to—

(I) for 1991, the amount specified in subparagraph (B)(i) for 1990 increased by the covered item update for 1991, and

(II) for 1992, 1993, and 1994 the amount determined under this clause for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for the year; and

(ii) the national limited payment amount for an item or device for a year is equal to—

(I) for 1991, the local payment amount determined under clause (i) for such item or device for that year, except that the national limited payment amount may not exeed 100 percent of the weighted average of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item for that year and may not be less than 85 percent of the weighted average of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item,

(II) for 1992 and 1993, the amount determined under this clause for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year,

(III) for 1994, the local payment amount determined under clause (i) for such item or device for that year, except that the national limited payment amount may not exceed 100 percent of the median of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item for that year and may not be less than 85 percent of the median of all local payment amounts determined under such clause for such item or device for that year, and

(IV) for each subsequent year, the amount determined under this clause for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year.

(4) Payment for certain customized items.—Payment with respect to a covered item that is uniquely constructed or substantially modified to meet the specific needs of an individual patient, and for that reason cannot be grouped with similar items for purposes of payment under this title, shall be made in a lump-sum amount (A) for the purchase of the item in a payment amount based upon the carrier’s individual consideration for that item, and (B) for the reasonable and necessary maintenance and servicing for parts and labor not covered by the supplier’s or manufacturer’s warranty, when necessary during the period of medical need, and the amount recognized for such maintenance and servicing shall be paid on a lump-sum, as needed basis based upon the carrier’s individual consideration for that item. In the case of a wheelchair furnished on or after January 1, 1992, the wheelchair shall be treated as a customized item for purposes of this paragraph if the wheelchair has been measured, fitted, or adapted in consideration of the patient’s body size, disability, period of need, or intended use, and has been assembled by a supplier or ordered from a manufacturer who makes available customized features, modifications, or components for wheelchairs that are intended for an individual patient’s use in accordance with instructions from the patient’s physician.

(5) Payment for oxygen and oxygen equipment.—

(A) In general.—Payment for oxygen and oxygen equipment shall be made on a monthly basis in the monthly payment amount recognized under paragraph (9) for oxygen and oxygen equipment (other than portable oxygen equipment), subject to subparagraphs (B), (C), (E), and (F).

(B) Add–on for portable oxygen equipment.—When portable oxygen equipment is used, but subject to subparagraph (D), the payment amount recognized under subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the monthly payment amount recognized under paragraph (9) for portable oxygen equipment.

(C) Volume adjustment.—When the attending physician prescribes an oxygen flow rate—

(i) exceeding 4 liters per minute, the payment amount recognized under subparagraph (A), subject to subparagraph (D), shall be increased by 50 percent, or

(ii) of less than 1 liter per minute, the payment amount recognized under subparagraph (A) shall be decreased by 50 percent.

(D) Limit on adjustment.—When portable oxygen equipment is used and the attending physician prescribes an oxygen flow rate exceeding 4 liters per minute, there shall only be an increase under either subparagraph (B) or (C), whichever increase is larger, and not under both such subparagraphs.

(E) Recertification for patients receiving home oxygen therapy.—In the case of a patient receiving home oxygen therapy services who, at the time such services are initiated, has an initial arterial blood gas value at or above a partial pressure of 56 or an arterial oxygen saturation at or above 89 percent (or such other values, pressures, or criteria as the Secretary may specify) no payment may be made under this part for such services after the expiration of the 90-day period that begins on the date the patient first receives such services unless the patient’s attending physician certifies that, on the basis of a follow-up test of the patient’s arterial blood gas value or arterial oxygen saturation conducted during the final 30 days of such 90-day period, there is a medical need for the patient to continue to receive such services.

(F) Rental cap.—

(i) In general.—Payment for oxygen equipment (including portable oxygen equipment) under this paragraph may not extend over a period of continuous use (as determined by the Secretary) of longer than 36 months.

(ii) Payments and rules after rental cap.—After the 36th continuous month during which payment is made for the equipment under this paragraph—

(I) the supplier furnishing such equipment under this subsection shall continue to furnish the equipment during any period of medical need for the remainder of the reasonable useful lifetime of the equipment, as determined by the Secretary;

(II) payments for oxygen shall continue to be made in the amount recognized for oxygen under paragraph (9) for the period of medical need; and

(III) maintenance and servicing payments shall, if the Secretary determines such payments are reasonable and necessary, be made (for parts and labor not covered by the supplier’s or manufacturer’s warranty, as determined by the Secretary to be appropriate for the equipment), and such payments shall be in an amount determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(6) Payment for other covered items (other than durable medical equipment).—Payment for other covered items (other than durable medical equipment and other covered items described in paragraph (3), (4), or (5)) shall be made in a lump-sum amount for the purchase of the item in the amount of the purchase price recognized under paragraph (8).

(7) Payment for other items of durable medical equipment.—

(A) Payment.—In the case of an item of durable medical equipment not described in paragraphs (2) through (6), the following rules shall apply:

(i) Rental.—

(I) In general.—Except as provided in clause (iii), payment for the item shall be made on a monthly basis for the rental of the item during the period of medical need (but payments under this clause may not extend over a period of continuous use (as determined by the Secretary) of longer than 13 months).

(II) Payment amount.—Subject to subclause (III) andsubparagraph (B), the amount recognized for the item, for each of the first 3 months of such period, is 10 percent of the purchase price recognized under paragraph (8) with respect to the item, and, for each of the remaining months of such period, is 7.5 percent of such purchase price.

(III) For purposes of payment for powerdriven wheelchairs, subclause (II) shall be applied by substituting “15 percent”and “6 percent”for “10 percent”and “7.5 percent”, respectively.

(ii) Ownership after rental.—On the first day that begins after the 13th continuous month during which payment is made for the rental of an item under clause (i), the supplier of the item shall transfer title to the item to the individual.

(iii) Purchase agreement option for complex, rehabilitative power-driven wheelchairs.—In the case of a complex, rehabilitative power-driven wheelchair, at the time the supplier furnishes the item, the supplier shall offer the individual the option to purchase the item, and payment for such item shall be made on a lump-sum basis if the individual exercises such option.

(iv) Maintenance and servicing.—After the supplier transfers title to the item under clause (ii) or in the case of a power-driven wheelchair for which a purchase agreement has been entered into under clause (iii), maintenance and servicing payments shall, if the Secretary determines such payments are reasonable and necessary, be made (for parts and labor not covered by the supplier’s or manufacturer’s warranty, as determined by the Secretary to be appropriate for the particular type of durable medical equipment), and such payments shall be in an amount determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(B) Range for rental amounts.—

(i) For 1989.—For items furnished during 1989, the payment amount recognized under subparagraph (A)(i) shall not be more than 115 percent, and shall not be less than 85 percent, of the prevailing charge established for rental of the item in January 1987, increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 6-month period ending with December 1987.

(ii) For 1990.—For items furnished during 1990, clause (i) shall apply in the same manner as it applies to items furnished during 1989.

(C) Replacement of items.—

(i) Establishment of reasonable useful lifetime.—In accordance with clause (iii), the Secretary shall determine and establish a reasonable useful lifetime for items of durable medical equipment for which payment may be made under this paragraph.

(ii) Payment for replacement items.—If the reasonable lifetime of such an item, as so established, has been reached during a continuous period of medical need, or the carrier determines that the item is lost or irreparably damaged, the patient may elect to have payment for an item serving as a replacement for such item made—

(I) on a monthly basis for the rental of the replacement item in accordance with subparagraph (A); or

(II) in the case of an item for which a purchase agreement has been entered into under subparagraph (A)(iii), in a lump-sum amount for the purchase of the item.

(iii) Length of reasonable useful lifetime.—The reasonable useful lifetime of an item of durable medical equipment under this subparagraph shall be equal to 5 years, except that, if the Secretary determines that, on the basis of prior experience in making payments for such an item under this title, a reasonable useful lifetime of 5 years is not appropriate with respect to a particular item, the Secretary shall establish an alternative reasonable lifetime for such item.

(8) Purchase price recognized for miscellaneous devices and items.—For purposes of paragraphs (6) and (7), the amount that is recognized under this paragraph as the purchase price for a covered item is the amount described in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, determined as follows:

(A) Computation of local purchase price.—Each carrier under section 1842 shall compute a base local purchase price for the item as follows:

(i) The carrier shall compute a base local purchase price, for each item described—

(I) in paragraph (6) equal to the average reasonable charge in the locality for the purchase of the item for the 12-month period ending with June 1987, or

(II) in paragraph (7) equal to the average of the purchase prices on the claims submitted on an assignment-related basis for the unused item supplied during the 6-month period ending with December 1986.

(ii) The carrier shall compute a local purchase price, with respect to the furnishing of each particular item—

(I) in 1989 and 1990, equal to the base local purchase price computed under clause (i) increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 6-month period ending with December 1987,

(II) in 1991, equal to the local purchase price computed under this clause for the previous year, increased by the covered item update for 1991, and decreased by the percentage by which the average of the reasonable charges for claims paid for all items described in paragraph (7) is lower than the average of the purchase prices submitted for such items during the final 9 months of 1988; or

(III) in 1992, 1993, and 1994 equal to the local purchase price computed under this clause for the previous year increased by the covered item update for the year.

(B) Computation of national limited purchase price.—With respect to the furnishing of a particular item in a year, the Secretary shall compute a national limited purchase price—

(i) for 1991, equal to the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii) for the item for the year, except that such national limited purchase price may not exceed 100 percent of the weighted average of all local purchase prices for the item computed under such subparagraph for the year, and may not be less than 85 percent of the weighted average of all local purchase prices for the item computed under such subparagraph for the year;

(ii) for 1992 and 1993, the amount determined under this subparagraph for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year;

(iii) for 1994, the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii) for the item for the year, except that such national limited purchase price may not exceed 100 percent of the median of all local purchase prices computed for the item under such subparagraph for the year and may not be less than 85 percent of the median of all local purchase prices computed under such subparagraph for the item for the year;

(iv) for 1995, 1996, and 1997, equal to the amount determined under this subparagraph for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year;

(v) for 1998, 75 percent of the amount determined under this subparagraph for 1997; and

(vi) for 1999 and each subsequent year, 70 percent of the amount determined under this subparagraph for 1997.

(C) Purchase price recognized.—For purposes of paragraphs (6) and (7), the amount that is recognized under this paragraph as the purchase price for each item furnished—

(i) in 1989 or 1990, is 100 percent of the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(I);

(ii) in 1991, is the sum of (I) 67 percent of the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for 1991, and (II) 33 percent of the national limited purchase price computed under subparagraph (B) for 1991;

(iii) in 1992, is the sum of (I) 33 percent of the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(III) for 1992, and (II) 67 percent of the national limited purchase price computed under subparagraph (B) for 1992; and

(iv) in 1993 or a subsequent year, is the national limited purchase price computed under subparagraph (B) for that year.

(9) Monthly payment amount recognized with respect to oxygen and oxygen equipment.—For purposes of paragraph (5), the amount that is recognized under this paragraph for payment for oxygen and oxygen equipment is the monthly payment amount described in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph. Such amount shall be computed separately (i) for all items of oxygen and oxygen equipment (other than portable oxygen equipment) and (ii) for portable oxygen equipment (each such group referred to in this paragraph as an “item”).

(A) Computation of local monthly payment rate.—Each carrier under this section shall compute a base local payment rate for each item as follows:

(i) The carrier shall compute a base local average monthly payment rate per beneficiary as an amount equal to (I) the total reasonable charges for the item during the 12-month period ending with December 1986, divided by (II) the total number of months for all beneficiaries receiving the item in the area during the 12-month period for which the carrier made payment for the item under this title.

(ii) The carrier shall compute a local average monthly payment rate for the item applicable—

(I) to 1989 and 1990, equal to 95 percent of the base local average monthly payment rate computed under clause (i) for the item increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 6-month period ending with December 1987, or

(II) to 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994 equal to the local average monthly payment rate computed under this clause for the item for the previous year increased by the covered item increase for the year.

(B) Computation of national limited monthly payment rate.—With respect to the furnishing of an item in a year, the Secretary shall compute a national limited monthly payment rate equal to—

(i) for 1991, the local monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for the item for the year, except that such national limited monthly payment rate may not exceed 100 percent of the weighted average of all local monthly payment rates computed for the item under such subparagraph for the year, and may not be less than 85 percent of the weighted average of all local monthly payment rates computed for the item under such subparagraph for the year;

(ii) for 1992 and 1993, the amount determined under this subparagraph for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year;

(iii) for 1994, the local monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (A)(ii) for the item for the year, except that such national limited monthly payment rate may not exceed 100 percent of the median of all local monthly payment rates computed for the item under such subparagraph for the year and may not be less than 85 percent of the median of all local monthly payment rates computed for the item under such subparagraph for the year;

(iv) for 1995, 1996, and 1997, equal to the amount determined under this subparagraph for the preceding year increased by the covered item update for such subsequent year;

(v) for 1998, 75 percent of the amount determined under this subparagraph for 1997; and

(vi) for 1999 and each subsequent year, 70 percent of the amount determined under this subparagraph for 1997.

(C) Monthly payment amount recognized.—For purposes of paragraph (5), the amount that is recognized under this paragraph as the base monthly payment amount for each item furnished—

(i) in 1989 and in 1990, is 100 percent of the local average monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (A)(ii) for the item;

(ii) in 1991, is the sum of (I) 67 percent of the local average monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for the item for 1991, and (II) 33 percent of the national limited monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (B)(i) for the item for 1991;

(iii) in 1992, is the sum of (I) 33 percent of the local average monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for the item for 1992, and (II) 67 percent of the national limited monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (B)(ii) for the item for 1992; and

(iv) in a subsequent year, is the national limited monthly payment rate computed under subparagraph (B) for the item for that year.

(D) Authority to create classes.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clause (ii), the Secretary may establish separate classes for any item of oxygen and oxygen equipment and separate national limited monthly payment rates for each of such classes.

(ii) Budget neutrality.—The Secretary may take actions under clause (i) only to the extent such actions do not result in expenditures for any year to be more or less than the expenditures which would have been made if such actions had not been taken.

(10) Exceptions and adjustments.—

(A) Areas outside continental united states.—Exceptions to the amounts recognized under the previous provisions of this subsection shall be made to take into account the unique circumstances of covered items furnished in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico.

(B) Adjustment for inherent reasonableness.—The Secretary is authorized to apply the provisions of paragraphs (8) and (9) of section 1842(b) to covered items and suppliers of such items and payments under this subsection in an area and with respect to covered items and services for which the Secretary does not make a payment amount adjustment under paragraph (1)(F).

(C) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (tens).—In order to permit an attending physician time to determine whether the purchase of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator is medically appropriate for a particular patient, the Secretary may determine an appropriate payment amount for the initial rental of such item for a period of not more than 2 months. If such item is subsequently purchased, the payment amount with respect to such purchase is the payment amount determined under paragraph (2).

(11) Improper billing and requirement of physician order.—

(A) Improper billing for certain rental items.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, a supplier of a covered item for which payment is made under this subsection and which is furnished on a rental basis shall continue to supply the item without charge (other than a charge provided under this subsection for the maintenance and servicing of the item) after rental payments may no longer be made under this subsection. If a supplier knowingly and willfully violates the previous sentence, the Secretary may apply sanctions against the supplier under section 1842(j)(2) in the same manner such sanctions may apply with respect to a physician.

(B) Requirement of physician order.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary is authorized to require, for specified covered items, that payment may be made under this subsection with respect to the item only if a physician enrolled under section 1866(j) or an eligible professional under section 1848(k)(3)(B) that is enrolled under section 1866(j)

(ii)[90] Requirements for face to face encounter.—The Secretary shall require that such an order be written pursuant to the physician documenting that a physician, a physician assistant, a nurse practitioner, or a clinical nurse specialist (as those terms are defined in section 1861(aa)(5)) has had a face-to-face encounter (including through use of telehealth under subsection (m) and other than with respect to encounters that are incident to services involved) with the individual involved during the 6- month period preceding such written order, or other reasonable timeframe as determined by the Secretary.

(12) Regional carriers.—The Secretary may designate, by regulation under section 1842, one carrier for one or more entire regions to process all claims within the region for covered items under this section.

(13) Covered item.—In this subsection, the term “covered item” means durable medical equipment (as defined in section 1861(n)), including such equipment described in section 1861(m)(5), but not including implantable items for which payment may be made under section 1833(t).

(14) Covered item update.—In this subsection, the term “covered item update” means, with respect to a year—

(A) for 1991 and 1992, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for 12-month period ending with June of the previous year reduced by 1 percentage point;

(B) for 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year;

(C) for each of the years 1998 through 2000, 0 percentage points;

(D) for 2001, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 12-month period ending with June 2000;

(E) for 2002, 0 percentage points;

(F) for 2003, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. urban average) for the 12-month period ending with June of 2002;

(G) for 2004 through 2006—

(i) subject to clause (ii), in the case of class III medical devices described in section 513(a)(1)(C) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act[91] (21 U.S.C. 360(c)(1)(C)), the percentage increase described in subparagraph (B) for the year involved; and

(ii) in the case of covered items not described in clause (i), 0 percentage points;

(H) for 2007—

(i) subject to clause (ii), in the case of class III medical devices described in section 513(a)(1)(C) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360(c)(1)(C)), the percentage change determined by the Secretary to be appropriate taking into account recommendations contained in the report of the Comptroller General of the United States under section 302(c)(1)(B) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003; and

(ii) in the case of covered items not described in clause (i), 0 percentage points;

(I) for 2008—

(i) subject to clause (ii), in the case of class III medical devices described in section 513(a)(1)(C) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360(c)(1)(C)), the percentage increase described in subparagraph (B) (as applied to the payment amount for 2007 determined after the application of the percentage change under subparagraph (H)(i)); and

(ii) in the case of covered items not described in clause (i), 0 percentage points;

(J) for 2009—

(i) in the case of items and services furnished in any geographic area, if such items or services were selected for competitive acquisition in any area under the competitive acquisition program under section 1847(a)(1)(B)(i)(I) before July 1, 2008, including related accessories but only if furnished with such items and services selected for such competition and diabetic supplies but only if furnished through mail order, - 9.5 percent; or

(ii) in the case of other items and services, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. urban average) for the 12- month period ending with June 2008;

(K) for 2010, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. urban average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year; and

(L) for 2011 and each subsequent year—

(i) the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year, reduced by—

(ii) the productivity adjustment described in section 1886(b)(3)(B)(xi)(II).

The application of subparagraph (L)(ii) may result in the covered item update under this paragraph being less than 0.0 for a year, and may result in payment rates under this subsection for a year being less than such payment rates for the preceding year.

(15) Advance determinations of coverage for certain items.—

(A) Development of list of items by secretary.—The Secretary may develop and periodically update a list of items for which payment may be made under this subsection that the Secretary determines, on the basis of prior payment experience, are frequently subject to unnecessary utilization throughout a carrier’s entire service area or a portion of such area.

(B) Development of lists of suppliers by secretary.—The Secretary may develop and periodically update a list of suppliers of items for which payment may be made under this subsection with respect to whom—

(i) the Secretary has found that a substantial number of claims for payment under this part for items furnished by the supplier have been denied on the basis of the application of section 1862(a)(1); or

(ii) the Secretary has identified a pattern of overutilization resulting from the business practice of the supplier.

(C) Determinations of coverage in advance.—A carrier shall determine in advance of delivery of an item whether payment for the item may not be made because the item is not covered or because of the application of section 1862(a)(1) if—

(i) the item is included on the list developed by the Secretary under subparagraph (A);

(ii) the item is furnished by a supplier included on the list developed by the Secretary under subparagraph (B); or

(iii) the item is a customized item (other than inexpensive items specified by the Secretary) and the patient to whom the item is to be furnished or the supplier requests that such advance determination be made.

(16) Disclosure of information and surety bond.—The Secretary shall not provide for the issuance (or renewal) of a provider number for a supplier of durable medical equipment, for purposes of payment under this part for durable medical equipment furnished by the supplier, unless the supplier provides the Secretary on a continuing basis—

(A) with—

(i) full and complete information as to the identity of each person with an ownership or control interest (as defined in section 1124(a)(3)) in the supplier or in any subcontractor (as defined by the Secretary in regulations) in which the supplier directly or indirectly has a 5 percent or more ownership interest; and

(ii) to the extent determined to be feasible under regulations of the Secretary, the name of any disclosing entity (as defined in section 1124(a)(2)) with respect to which a person with such an ownership or control interest in the supplier is a person with such an ownership or control interest in the disclosing entity; and

(B) with a surety bond in a form specified by the Secretary and in an amount that is not less than $50,000.

The Secretary may waive the requirement of a bond under subparagraph (B) in the case of a supplier that provides a comparable surety bond under State law. The Secretary, at the Secretary’s discretion, may impose the requirements of the first sentence with respect to some or all providers of items or services under part A or some or all suppliers or other persons (other than physicians or other practitioners, as defined in section 1842(b)(18)(C)) who furnish items or services under this part.

(17) Prohibition against unsolicited telephone contacts by suppliers.—

(A) In general.—A supplier of a covered item under this subsection may not contact an individual enrolled under this part by telephone regarding the furnishing of a covered item to the individual unless 1 of the following applies:

(i) The individual has given written permission to the supplier to make contact by telephone regarding the furnishing of a covered item.

(ii) The supplier has furnished a covered item to the individual and the supplier is contacting the individual only regarding the furnishing of such covered item.

(iii) If the contact is regarding the furnishing of a covered item other than a covered item already furnished to the individual, the supplier has furnished at least 1 covered item to the individual during the 15-month period preceding the date on which the supplier makes such contact.

(B) Prohibiting payment for items furnished subsequent to unsolicited contacts.—If a supplier knowingly contacts an individual in violation of subparagraph (A), no payment may be made under this part for any item subsequently furnished to the individual by the supplier.

(C) Exclusion from program for suppliers engaging in pattern of unsolicited contacts.—If a supplier knowingly contacts individuals in violation of subparagraph (A) to such an extent that the supplier’s conduct establishes a pattern of contacts in violation of such subparagraph, the Secretary shall exclude the supplier from participation in the programs under this Act, in accordance with the procedures set forth in subsections (c), (f), and (g) of section 1128.

(18) Refund of amounts collected for certain disallowed items.—

(A) In general.—If a nonparticipating supplier furnishes to an individual enrolled under this part a covered item for which no payment may be made under this part by reason of paragraph (17)(B), the supplier shall refund on a timely basis to the patient (and shall be liable to the patient for) any amounts collected from the patient for the item, unless—

(i) the supplier establishes that the supplier did not know and could not reasonably have been expected to know that payment may not be made for the item by reason of paragraph (17)(B), or

(ii) before the item was furnished, the patient was informed that payment under this part may not be made for that item and the patient has agreed to pay for that item.

(B) Sanctions.—If a supplier knowingly and willfully fails to make refunds in violation of subparagraph (A), the Secretary may apply sanctions against the supplier in accordance with section 1842(j)(2).

(C) Notice.—Each carrier with a contract in effect under this part with respect to suppliers of covered items shall send any notice of denial of payment for covered items by reason of paragraph (17)(B) and for which payment is not requested on an assignment-related basis to the supplier and the patient involved.

(D) Timely basis defined.—A refund under subparagraph (A) is considered to be on a timely basis only if—

(i) in the case of a supplier who does not request reconsideration or seek appeal on a timely basis, the refund is made within 30 days after the date the supplier receives a denial notice under subparagraph (C), or

(ii) in the case in which such a reconsideration or appeal is taken, the refund is made within 15 days after the date the supplier receives notice of an adverse determination on reconsideration or appeal.

(19) Certain upgraded items.—

(A) Individual’s right to choose upgraded item.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the Secretary may issue regulations under which an individual may purchase or rent from a supplier an item of upgraded durable medical equipment for which payment would be made under this subsection if the item were a standard item.

(B) Payments to supplier.—In the case of the purchase or rental of an upgraded item under subparagraph (A)—

(i) the supplier shall receive payment under this subsection with respect to such item as if such item were a standard item; and

(ii) the individual purchasing or renting the item shall pay the supplier an amount equal to the difference between the supplier’s charge and the amount under clause (i).

In no event may the supplier’s charge for an upgraded item exceed the applicable fee schedule amount (if any) for such item.

(C) Consumer protection safeguards.—Any regulations under subparagraph (A) shall provide for consumer protection standards with respect to the furnishing of upgraded equipment under subparagraph (A). Such regulations shall provide for—

(i) determination of fair market prices with respect to an upgraded item;

(ii) full disclosure of the availability and price of standard items and proof of receipt of such disclosure information by the beneficiary before the furnishing of the upgraded item;

(iii) conditions of participation for suppliers in the billing arrangement;

(iv) sanctions of suppliers who are determined to engage in coercive or abusive practices, including exclusion; and

(v) such other safeguards as the Secretary determines are necessary.

(20) Identification of quality standards.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (C), the Secretary shall establish and implement quality standards for suppliers of items and services described in subparagraph (D) to be applied by recognized independent accreditation organizations (as designated under subparagraph (B)) and with which such suppliers shall be required to comply in order to—

(i) furnish any such item or service for which payment is made under this part; and

(ii) receive or retain a provider or supplier number used to submit claims for reimbursement for any such item or service for which payment may be made under this title.

(B) Designation of independent accreditation organizations.—Not later than the date that is 1 year after the date on which the Secretary implements the quality standards under subparagraph (A), notwithstanding section 1865(a), the Secretary shall designate and approve one or more independent accreditation organizations for purposes of such subparagraph.

(C) Quality standards.—The quality standards described in subparagraph (A) may not be less stringent than the quality standards that would otherwise apply if this paragraph did not apply and shall include consumer services standards.

(D) Items and services described.—The items and services described in this subparagraph are the following items and services, as the Secretary determines appropriate:

(i) Covered items (as defined in paragraph (13)) for which payment may otherwise be made under this subsection.

(ii) Prosthetic devices and orthotics and prosthetics described in section 1834(h)(4).

(iii) Items and services described in section 1842(s)(2).

(E) Implementation.—The Secretary may establish by program instruction or otherwise the quality standards under this paragraph, including subparagraph (F), after consultation with representatives of relevant parties. Such standards shall be applied prospectively and shall be published on the Internet website of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

(F) Application of accreditation requirement.—In implementing quality standards under this paragraph—

(i) subject to clause (ii) and subparagraph (G), the Secretary shall require suppliers furnishing items and services described in subparagraph (D) on or after October 1, 2009, directly or as a subcontractor for another entity, to have submitted to the Secretary evidence of accreditation by an accreditation organization designated under subparagraph (B) as meeting applicable quality standards , except that the Secretary shall not require under this clause pharmacies to obtain such accreditation before January 1, 2010, except that the Secretary shall not require a pharmacy to have submitted to the Secretary such evidence of accreditation prior to January 1, 2011; and

(ii) in applying such standards and the accreditation requirement of clause (i) with respect to eligible professionals (as defined in section 1848(k)(3)(B)), and including such other persons, such as orthotists and prosthetists, as specified by the Secretary, furnishing such items and services—

(I) such standards and accreditation requirement shall not apply to such professionals and persons unless the Secretary determines that the standards being applied are designed specifically to be applied to such professionals and persons; and

(II) the Secretary may exempt such professionals and persons from such standards and requirement if the Secretary determines that licensing, accreditation, or other mandatory quality requirements apply to such professionals and persons with respect to the furnishing of such items and services.

(G)Application of accreditation requirement to certain pharmacies.—

(i) In general.—With respect to items and services furnished on or after January 1, 2011, in implementing quality standards under this paragraph—

(I) subject to subclause (II), in applying such standards and the accreditation requirement of subparagraph (F)(i) with respect to pharmacies described in clause (ii) furnishing such items and services, such standards and accreditation requirement shall not apply to such pharmacies; and

(II) the Secretary may apply to such pharmacies an alternative accreditation requirement established by the Secretary if the Secretary determines such alternative accreditation requirement is more appropriate for such pharmacies.

(ii) Pharmacies described.—A pharmacy described in this clause is a pharmacy that meets each of the following criteria:

(I) The total billings by the pharmacy for such items and services under this title are less than 5 percent of total pharmacy sales, as determined based on the average total pharmacy sales for the previous 3 calendar years, 3 fiscal years, or other yearly period specified by the Secretary.

(II) The pharmacy has been enrolled under section 1866(j) as a supplier of durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies, has been issued (which may include the renewal of) a provider number for at least 5 years, and for which a final adverse action (as defined in section 424.57(a) of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations) has not been imposed in the past 5 years.

(III) The pharmacy submits to the Secretary an attestation, in a form and manner, and at a time, specified by the Secretary, that the pharmacy meets the criteria described in subclauses (I) and (II). Such attestation shall be subject to section 1001 of title 18, United States Code.

(IV) The pharmacy agrees to submit materials as requested by the Secretary, or during the course of an audit conducted on a random sample of pharmacies selected annually, to verify that the pharmacy meets the criteria described in subclauses (I) and (II). Materials submitted under the preceding sentence shall include a certification by an accountant on behalf of the pharmacy or the submission of tax returns filed by the pharmacy during the relevant periods, as requested by the Secretary.

(21) Special payment rule for specified items and supplies.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, for specified items and supplies (described in subparagraph (B)) furnished during 2005, the payment amount otherwise determined under this subsection for such specified items and supplies shall be reduced by the percentage difference between—

(i) the amount of payment otherwise determined for the specified item or supply under this subsection for 2002, and

(ii) the amount of payment for the specified item or supply under chapter 89 of title 5, United States Code, as identified in the column entitled “Median FEHP Price” in the table entitled “SUMMARY OF MEDICARE PRICES COMPARED TO VA, MEDICAID, RETAIL, AND FEHP PRICES FOR 16 ITEMS” included in the Testimony of the Inspector General before the Senate Committee on Appropriations, June 12, 2002, or any subsequent report by the Inspector General.

(B) Specified item or supply described.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), a specified item or supply means oxygen and oxygen equipment, standard wheelchairs (including standard power wheelchairs), nebulizers, diabetic supplies consisting of lancets and testing strips, hospital beds, and air mattresses, but only if the HCPCS code for the item or supply is identified in a table referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii).

(C) Application of update to special payment amount.—The covered item update under paragraph (14) for specified items and supplies for 2006 and each subsequent year shall be applied to the payment amount under subparagraph (A) unless payment is made for such items and supplies under section 1847.

(22)[92] Special payment rule for diabetic supplies.—Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, for purposes of determining the payment amount under this subsection for diabetic supplies furnished on or after the first day of the calendar quarter during 2013 that is at least 30 days after the date of the enactment of this paragraph and before the date described in paragraph (1)(H)(ii), the Secretary shall recalculate and apply the covered item update under paragraph (14) as if subparagraph (J)(i) of such paragraph was amended by striking “but only if furnished through mail order”.

(b) Fee Schedules for Radiologist Services.—

(1) Development.—The Secretary shall develop—

(A) a relative value scale to serve as the basis for the payment for radiologist services under this part, and

(B) using such scale and appropriate conversion factors and subject to subsection (c)(1)(A), fee schedules (on a regional, statewide, locality, or carrier service area basis) for payment for radiologist services under this part, to be implemented for such services furnished during 1989.

(2) Consultation.—In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall regularly consult closely with the Physician Payment Review Commission, the American College of Radiology, and other organizations representing physicians or suppliers who furnish radiologist services and shall share with them the data and data analysis being used to make the determinations under paragraph (1), including data on variations in current medicare payments by geographic area, and by service and physician specialty.

(3) Considerations.—In developing the relative value scale and fee schedules under paragraph (1), the Secretary—

(A) shall take into consideration variations in the cost of furnishing such services among geographic areas and among different sites where services are furnished, and

(B) may also take into consideration such other factors respecting the manner in which physicians in different specialties furnish such services as may be appropriate to assure that payment amounts are equitable and designed to promote effective and efficient provision of radiologist services by physicians in the different specialties.

(4) Savings.—

(A) Budget neutral fee schedules.—The Secretary shall develop preliminary fee schedules for 1989, which are designed to result in the same amount of aggregate payments (net of any coinsurance and deductibles under sections 1833(a)(1)(J) and 1833(b)) for radiologist services furnished in 1989 as would have been made if this subsection had not been enacted.

(B) Initial savings.—The fee schedules established for payment purposes under this subsection for services furnished in 1989 shall be 97 percent of the amounts permitted under these preliminary fee schedules developed under subparagraph (A).

(C) 1990 fee schedules.—For radiologist services (other than portable X-ray services) furnished under this part during 1990, after March 31 of such year, the conversion factors used under this subsection shall be 96 percent of the conversion factors that applied under this subsection as of December 31, 1989.

(D) 1991 fee schedules.—For radiologist services (other than portable X–ray services) furnished under this part during 1991, the conversion factors used in a locality under this subsection shall, subject to clause (vii), be reduced to the adjusted conversion factor for the locality determined as follows:

(i) National weighted average conversion factor.—The Secretary shall estimate the national weighted average of the conversion factors used under this subsection for services furnished during 1990 beginning on April 1, using the best available data.

(ii) Reduced national weighted average.—The national weighted average estimated under clause (i) shall be reduced by 13 percent.

(iii) Computation of 1990 locality index relative to national average.—The Secretary shall establish an index which reflects, for each locality, the ratio of the conversion factor used in the locality under this subsection to the national weighted average estimated under clause (i).

(iv) Adjusted conversion factor.—The adjusted conversion factor for the professional or technical component of a service in a locality is the sum of 1/2 of the locally-adjusted amount determined under clause (v) and 1/2 of the GPCI-adjusted amount determined under clause (vi).

(v) Locally-adjusted amount.—For purposes of clause (iv), the locally adjusted amount determined under this clause is the product of (I) the national weighted average conversion factor computed under clause (ii), and (II) the index value established under clause (iii) for the locality.

(vi) GPCI-adjusted amount.—For purposes of clause (iv), the GPCI-adjusted amount determined under this clause is the sum of—

(I) the product of (a) the portion of the reduced national weighted average conversion factor computed under clause (ii) which is attributable to physician work and (b) the geographic work index value for the locality (specified in Addendum C to the Model Fee Schedule for Physician Services (published on September 4, 1990, 55 Federal Register pp. 36238-36243)); and

(II) the product of (a) the remaining portion of the reduced national weighted average conversion factor computed under clause (ii), and (b) the geographic practice cost index value specified in section 1842(b)(14)(C)(iv) for the locality.

In applying this clause with respect to the professional component of a service, 80 percent of the conversion factor shall be considered to be attributable to physician work and with respect to the technical component of the service, 0 percent shall be considered to be attributable to physician work.

(vii) Limits on conversion factor.—The conversion factor to be applied to a locality to the professional or technical component of a service shall not be reduced under this subparagraph by more than 9.5 percent below the conversion factor applied in the locality under subparagraph (C) to such component, but in no case shall the conversion factor be less than 60 percent of the national weighted average of the conversion factors (computed under clause (i)).

(E) Rule for certain scanning services.—In the case of the technical components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) services and computer assisted tomography (CAT) services furnished after December 31, 1990, the amount otherwise payable shall be reduced by 10 percent.

(F) Subsequent updating.—For radiologist services furnished in subsequent years, the fee schedules shall be the schedules for the previous year updated by the percentage increase in the MEI (as defined in section 1842(i)(3)) for the year.

(G) Nonparticipating physicians and suppliers.—Each fee schedule so established shall provide that the payment rate recognized for nonparticipating physicians and suppliers is equal to the appropriate percent (as defined in section 1842(b)(4)(A)(iv)) of the payment rate recognized for participating physicians and suppliers.

(5) Limiting charges of nonparticipating physicians and suppliers.—

(A) In general.—In the case of radiologist services furnished after January 1, 1989, for which payment is made under a fee schedule under this subsection, if a nonparticipating physician or supplier furnishes the service to an individual entitled to benefits under this part, the physician or supplier may not charge the individual more than the limiting charge (as defined in subparagraph (B)).

(B) Limiting charge defined.—In subparagraph (A), the term “limiting charge” means, with respect to a service furnished—

(i) in 1989, 125 percent of the amount specified for the service in the appropriate fee schedule established under paragraph (1),

(ii) in 1990, 120 percent of the amount specified for the service in the appropriate fee schedule established under paragraph (1), and

(iii) after 1990, 115 percent of the amount specified for the service in the appropriate fee schedule established under paragraph (1).

(C) Enforcement.—If a physician or supplier knowingly and willfully bills in violation of subparagraph (A), the Secretary may apply sanctions against such physician or supplier in accordance with section 1842(j)(2) in the same manner as such sanctions may apply to a physician.

(6) Radiologist services defined.—For the purposes of this subsection and section 1833(a)(1)(J), the term “radiologist services” only includes radiology services performed by, or under the direction or supervision of, a physician—

(A) who is certified, or eligible to be certified, by the American Board of Radiology, or

(B) for whom radiology services account for at least 50 percent of the total amount of charges made under this part.

(c) Payment and Standards for Screening Mammography.—

(1) In general.—With respect to expenses incurred for screening mammography (as defined in section 1861(jj)), payment may be made only—

(A) for screening mammography conducted consistent with the frequency permitted under paragraph (2); and

(B) if the screening mammography is conducted by a facility that has a certificate (or provisional certificate) issued under section 354 of the Public Health Service Act[93].

(2) Frequency covered.—

(A) In general.—Subject to revision by the Secretary under subparagraph (B)—

(i) no payment may be made under this part for screening mammography performed on a woman under 35 years of age;

(ii) payment may be made under this part for only one screening mammography performed on a woman over 34 years of age, but under 40 years of age; and

(iii) in the case of a woman over 39 years of age, payment may not be made under this part for screening mammography performed within 11 months following the month in which a previous screening mammography was performed.

(B) Revision of frequency.—

(i) Review.—The Secretary, in consultation with the Director of the National Cancer Institute, shall review periodically the appropriate frequency for performing screening mammography, based on age and such other factors as the Secretary believes to be pertinent.

(ii) Revision of frequency.—The Secretary, taking into consideration the review made under clause (i), may revise from time to time the frequency with which screening mammography may be paid for under this subsection.

(d) Frequency Limits and Payment for Colorectal Cancer Screening Tests.—

(1) Screening fecal-occult blood tests.—

(A) Payment amount.—The payment amount for colorectal cancer screening tests consisting of screening fecal-occult blood tests is equal to the payment amount established for diagnostic fecal-occult blood tests under section 1833(h).

(B) Frequency limit.—No payment may be made under this part for a colorectal cancer screening test consisting of a screening fecal-occult blood test—

(i) if the individual is under 50 years of age; or

(ii) if the test is performed within the 11 months after a previous screening fecal-occult blood test.

(2) Screening flexible sigmoidoscopies.—

(A) Fee schedule.—With respect to colorectal cancer screening tests consisting of screening flexible sigmoidoscopies, payment under section 1848 shall be consistent with payment under such section for similar or related services.

(B) Payment limit.—In the case of screening flexible sigmoidoscopy services, payment under this part shall not exceed such amount as the Secretary specifies, based upon the rates recognized for diagnostic flexible sigmoidoscopy services.

(C) Facility payment limit.—

(i) In general.—Notwithstanding subsections (i)(2)(A) and (t) of section 1833, in the case of screening flexible sigmoidoscopy services furnished on or after January 1, 1999, that—

(I) in accordance with regulations, may be performed in an ambulatory surgical center and for which the Secretary permits ambulatory surgical center payments under this part,

(II) are performed in an ambulatory surgical center or hospital outpatient department, payment under this part shall be based on the lesser of the amount under the fee schedule that would apply to such services if they were performed in a hospital outpatient department in an area or the amount under the fee schedule that would apply to such services if they were performed in an ambulatory surgical center in the same area.

(ii) Limitation on coinsurance.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, in the case of a beneficiary who receives the services described in clause (i)—

(I) in computing the amount of any applicable copayment, the computation of such coinsurance shall be based upon the fee schedule under which payment is made for the services, and

(II) the amount of such coinsurance is equal to 25 percent of the payment amount under the fee schedule described in subclause (I).

(D) Special rule for detected lesions.—If during the course of such screening flexible sigmoidoscopy, a lesion or growth is detected which results in a biopsy or removal of the lesion or growth, payment under this part shall not be made for the screening flexible sigmoidoscopy but shall be made for the procedure classified as a flexible sigmoidoscopy with such biopsy or removal.

(E) Frequency limit.—No payment may be made under this part for a colorectal cancer screening test consisting of a screening flexible sigmoidoscopy—

(i) if the individual is under 50 years of age; or

(ii) if the procedure is performed within the 47 months after a previous screening flexible sigmoidoscopy or, in the case of an individual who is not at high risk for colorectal cancer, if the procedure is performed within the 119 months after a previous screening colonoscopy.

(3) Screening colonoscopy.—

(A) Fee schedule.—With respect to colorectal cancer screening test consisting of a screening colonoscopy, payment under section 1848 shall be consistent with payment amounts under such section for similar or related services.

(B) Payment limit.—In the case of screening colonoscopy services, payment under this part shall not exceed such amount as the Secretary specifies, based upon the rates recognized for diagnostic colonoscopy services.

(C) Facility payment limit.—

(i) In general.—Notwithstanding subsections (i)(2)(A) and (t) of section 1833, in the case of screening colonoscopy services furnished on or after January 1, 1999, that are performed in an ambulatory surgical center or a hospital outpatient department, payment under this part shall be based on the lesser of the amount under the fee schedule that would apply to such services if they were performed in a hospital outpatient department in an area or the amount under the fee schedule that would apply to such services if they were performed in an ambulatory surgical center in the same area.

(ii) Limitation on coinsurance.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, in the case of a beneficiary who receives the services described in clause (i)—

(I) in computing the amount of any applicable coinsurance, the computation of such coinsurance shall be based upon the fee schedule under which payment is made for the services, and

(II) the amount of such coinsurance is equal to 25 percent of the payment amount under the fee schedule described in subclause (I).

(D) Special rule for detected lesions.—If during the course of such screening colonoscopy, a lesion or growth is detected which results in a biopsy or removal of the lesion or growth, payment under this part shall not be made for the screening colonoscopy but shall be made for the procedure classified as a colonoscopy with such biopsy or removal.

(E) Frequency limit.—No payment may be made under this part for a colorectal cancer screening test consisting of a screening colonoscopy for individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer if the procedure is performed within the 23 months after a previous screening colonoscopy or for other individuals if the procedure is performed within the 119 months after a previous screening colonoscopy or within 47 months after a previous screening flexible sigmoidoscopy.

(e)[94] Accreditation Requirement for Advanced Diagnostic Imaging Services.—

(1) In general.—

(A) In general.—Beginning with January 1, 2012, with respect to the technical component of advanced diagnostic imaging services for which payment is made under the fee schedule established under section 1848(b) and that are furnished by a supplier, payment may only be made if such supplier is accredited by an accreditation organization designated by the Secretary under paragraph (2)(B)(i).

(B) Advanced diagnostic imaging services defined.—In this subsection, the term “advanced diagnostic imaging services” includes—

(i) diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine (including positron emission tomography); and

(ii) such other diagnostic imaging services, including services described in section 1848(b)(4)(B) (excluding X-ray, ultrasound, and fluoroscopy), as specified by the Secretary in consultation with physician specialty organizations and other stakeholders.

(C) Supplier defined.—In this subsection, the term “supplier” has the meaning given such term in section 1861(d).

(2) Accreditation of organizations.—

(A) Factors for designation of accreditation organizations.—The Secretary shall consider the following factors in designating accreditation organizations under subparagraph (B)(i) and in reviewing and modifying the list of accreditation organizations designated pursuant to subparagraph (C):

(i) The ability of the organization to conduct timely reviews of accreditation applications.

(ii) Whether the organization has established a process for the timely integration of new advanced diagnostic imaging services into the organization’s accreditation program.

(iii) Whether the organization uses random site visits, site audits, or other strategies for ensuring accredited suppliers maintain adherence to the criteria described in paragraph (3).

(iv) The ability of the organization to take into account the capacities of suppliers located in a rural area (as defined in section 1886(d)(2)(D)).

(v) Whether the organization has established reasonable fees to be charged to suppliers applying for accreditation.

(vi) Such other factors as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(B) Designation.—Not later than January 1, 2010, the Secretary shall designate organizations to accredit suppliers furnishing the technical component of advanced diagnostic imaging services. The list of accreditation organizations so designated may be modified pursuant to subparagraph (C).

(C) Review and modification of list of accreditation organizations.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary shall review the list of accreditation organizations designated under subparagraph (B) taking into account the factors under subparagraph (A). Taking into account the results of such review, the Secretary may, by regulation, modify the list of accreditation organizations designated under subparagraph (B).

(ii) Special rule for accreditations done prior to removal from list of designated accreditation organizations.—In the case where the Secretary removes an organization from the list of accreditation organizations designated under subparagraph (B), any supplier that is accredited by the organization during the period beginning on the date on which the organization is designated as an accreditation organization under subparagraph (B) and ending on the date on which the organization is removed from such list shall be considered to have been accredited by an organization designated by the Secretary under subparagraph (B) for the remaining period such accreditation is in effect.

(3) Credit for accreditation.—The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that the criteria used by an accreditation organization designated under paragraph (2)(B) to evaluate a supplier that furnishes the technical component of advanced diagnostic imaging services for the purpose of accreditation of such supplier is specific to each imaging modality. Such criteria shall include—

(A) standards for qualifications of medical personnel who are not physicians and who furnish the technical component of advanced diagnostic imaging services;

(B) standards for qualifications and responsibilities of medical directors and supervising physicians, including standards that recognize the considerations described in paragraph (4);

(C) procedures to ensure that equipment used in furnishing the technical component of advanced diagnostic imaging services meets performance specifications;

(D) standards that require the supplier have procedures in place to ensure the safety of persons who furnish the technical component of advanced diagnostic imaging services and individuals to whom such services are furnished;

(E) standards that require the establishment and maintenance of a quality assurance and quality control program by the supplier that is adequate and appropriate to ensure the reliability, clarity, and accuracy of the technical quality of diagnostic images produced by such supplier; and

(F) any other standards or procedures the Secretary determines appropriate.

(4) Recognition in standards for the evaluation of medical directors and supervising physicians.—The standards described in paragraph (3)(B) shall recognize whether a medical director or supervising physician—

(A) in a particular specialty receives training in advanced diagnostic imaging services in a residency program;

(B) has attained, through experience, the necessary expertise to be a medical director or a supervising physician; Procedures.

(C) has completed any continuing medical education courses relating to such services; or

(D) has met such other standards as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(5) Rule for accreditations made prior to designations.—In the case of a supplier that is accredited before January 1, 2010, by an accreditation organization designated by the Secretary under paragraph (2)(B) as of January 1, 2010, such supplier shall be considered to have been accredited by an organization designated by the Secretary under such paragraph as of January 1, 2012, for the remaining period such accreditation is in effect.

(f) Reduction in Payments for Physician Pathology Services During 1991.—

(1) In general.—For physician pathology services furnished under this part during 1991, the prevailing charges used in a locality under this part shall be 7 percent below the prevailing charges used in the locality under this part in 1990 after March 31.

(2) Limitation.—The prevailing charge for the technical and professional components of an[95] physician pathology service furnished by a physician through an independent laboratory shall not be reduced pursuant to paragraph (1) to the extent that such reduction would reduce such prevailing charge below 115 percent of the prevailing charge for the professional component of such service when furnished by a hospital-based physician in the same locality. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an independent laboratory is a laboratory that is independent of a hospital and separate from the attending or consulting physicians’ office.

(g) Payment for Outpatient Critical Access Hospital Services.—

(1) In general.—The amount of payment for outpatient critical access hospital services of a critical access hospital is equal to 101 percent of the reasonable costs of the hospital in providing such services, unless the hospital makes the election under paragraph (2).

(2) Election of cost–based hospital outpatient service payment plus fee schedule for professional services.—A critical access hospital may elect to be paid for outpatient critical access hospital services amounts equal to the sum of the following, less the amount that such hospital may charge as described in section 1866(a)(2)(A):

(A) Facility fee.—With respect to facility services, not including any services for which payment may be made under subparagraph (B), 101 percent of the reasonable costs of the critical access hospital in providing such services.

(B) Fee schedule for professional services.—With respect to professional services otherwise included within outpatient critical access hospital services, 115 percent of such amounts as would otherwise be paid under this part if such services were not included in outpatient critical access hospital services. Subsections (x) and (y) of section 1833shall not be taken into account in determining the amounts that would otherwise be paid pursuant to the preceding sentence.

The Secretary may not require, as a condition for applying subparagraph (B) with respect to a critical access hospital, that each physician or other practitioner providing professional services in the hospital must assign billing rights with respect to such services, except that such subparagraph shall not apply to those physicians and practitioners who have not assigned such billing rights.

(3) Disregarding charges.—The payment amounts under this subsection shall be determined without regard to the amount of the customary or other charge.

(4) Treatment of clinical diagnostic laboratory services.—No coinsurance, deductible, copayment, or other cost–sharing otherwise applicable under this part shall apply with respect to clinical diagnostic laboratory services furnished as an outpatient critical access hospital service. Nothing in this title shall be construed as providing for payment for clinical diagnostic laboratory services furnished as part of outpatient critical access hospital services, other than on the basis described in this subsection. For purposes of the preceding sentence and section 1861(mm)(3), clinical diagnostic laboratory services furnished by a critical access hospital shall be treated as being furnished as part of outpatient critical access services without regard to whether the individual with respect to whom such services are furnished is physically present in the critical access hospital, or in a skilled nursing facility or a clinic (including a rural health clinic) that is operated by a critical access hospital, at the time the specimen is collected.

(5) Coverage of costs for certain emergency room on–call providers.—In determining the reasonable costs of outpatient critical access hospital services under paragraphs (1) and (2)(A), the Secretary shall recognize as allowable costs, amounts (as defined by the Secretary) for reasonable compensation and related costs for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and clinical nurse specialists who are on-call (as defined by the Secretary) to provide emergency services but who are not present on the premises of the critical access hospital involved, and are not otherwise furnishing services covered under this title and are not on-call at any other provider or facility.

(h) Payment for Prosthetic Devices and Orthotics and Prosthetics.—

(1) General rule for payment.—

(A) In general.—Payment under this subsection for prosthetic devices and orthotics and prosthetics shall be made in a lump-sum amount for the purchase of the item in an amount equal to 80 percent of the payment basis described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Payment basis.—Except as provided in subparagraphs (C), (E), and (H)(i), the payment basis described in this subparagraph is the lesser of—

(i) the actual charge for the item; or

(ii) the amount recognized under paragraph (2) as the purchase price for the item.

(C) Exception for certain public home health agencies.—Subparagraph (B)(i) shall not apply to an item furnished by a public home health agency (or by another home health agency which demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that a significant portion of its patients are low income) free of charge or at nominal charges to the public.

(D) Exclusive payment rule.—Subject to subparagraph (H)(ii), this subsection shall constitute the exclusive provision of this title for payment for prosthetic devices, orthotics, and prosthetics under this part or under part A to a home health agency.

(E) Exception for certain items.—Payment for ostomy supplies, tracheostomy supplies, and urologicals shall be made in accordance with subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 1834(a)(2).

(F) Special payment rules for certain prosthetics and custom–fabricated orthotics.—

(i) In general.—No payment shall be made under this subsection for an item of custom– fabricated orthotics described in clause (ii) or for an item of prosthetics unless such item is—

(I) furnished by a qualified practitioner; and

(II) fabricated by a qualified practitioner or a qualified supplier at a facility that meets such criteria as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(ii) Description of custom–fabricated item.—

(I) In general.—An item described in this clause is an item of custom-fabricated orthotics that requires education, training, and experience to custom-fabricate and that is included in a list established by the Secretary in subclause (II). Such an item does not include shoes and shoe inserts.

(II) List of items.—The Secretary, in consultation with appropriate experts in orthotics (including national organizations representing manufacturers of orthotics), shall establish and update as appropriate a list of items to which this subparagraph applies. No item may be included in such list unless the item is individually fabricated for the patient over a positive model of the patient.

(iii) Qualified practitioner defined.—In this subparagraph, the term “qualified practitioner” means a physician or other individual who—

(I) is a qualified physical therapist or a qualified occupational therapist;

(II) in the case of a State that provides for the licensing of orthotics and prosthetics, is licensed in orthotics or prosthetics by the State in which the item is supplied; or

(III) in the case of a State that does not provide for the licensing of orthotics and prosthetics, is specifically trained and educated to provide or manage the provision of prosthetics and custom–designed or –fabricated orthotics, and is certified by the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics, Inc. or by the Board for Orthotist/Prosthetist Certification, or is credentialed and approved by a program that the Secretary determines, in consultation with appropriate experts in orthotics and prosthetics, has training and education standards that are necessary to provide such prosthetics and orthotics.

(iv) Qualified supplier defined.—In this subparagraph, the term “qualified supplier” means any entity that is accredited by the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics, Inc. or by the Board for Orthotist/ Prosthetist Certification, or accredited and approved by a program that the Secretary determines has accreditation and approval standards that are essentially equivalent to those of such Board.

(G) Replacement of prosthetic devices and parts.—

(i) In general.—Payment shall be made for the replacement of prosthetic devices which are artificial limbs, or for the replacement of any part of such devices, without regard to continuous use or useful lifetime restrictions if an ordering physician determines that the provision of a replacement device, or a replacement part of such a device, is necessary because of any of the following:

(I) A change in the physiological condition of the patient.

(II) An irreparable change in the condition of the device, or in a part of the device.

(III) The condition of the device, or the part of the device, requires repairs and the cost of such repairs would be more than 60 percent of the cost of a replacement device, or, as the case may be, of the part being replaced.

(ii) Confirmation may be required if device or part being replaced is less than 3 years old.—If a physician determines that a replacement device, or a replacement part, is necessary pursuant to clause (i)—

(I) such determination shall be controlling; and

(II) such replacement device or part shall be deemed to be reasonable and necessary for purposes of section 1862(a)(1)(A);

except that if the device, or part, being replaced is less than 3 years old (calculated from the date on which the beneficiary began to use the device or part), the Secretary may also require confirmation of necessity of the replacement device or replacement part, as the case may be.

(H) Application of competitive acquisition to orthotics; limitation of inherent reasonableness authority.—In the case of orthotics described in paragraph (2)(C) of section 1847(a) furnished on or after January 1, 2011, subject to subparagraph (G)(1)(A), that are included in a competitive acquisition program in a competitive acquisition area under such section—

(i) the payment basis under this subsection for such orthotics furnished in such area shall be the payment basis determined under such competitive acquisition program; and

(ii) the Secretary may use information on the payment determined under such competitive acquisition programs to adjust the payment amount otherwise recognized under subparagraph (B)(ii) for an area that is not a competitive acquisition area under section 1847, and in the case of such adjustment, paragraphs (8) and (9) of section 1842(b) shall not be applied.

(2) Purchase price recognized.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the amount that is recognized under this paragraph as the purchase price for prosthetic devices, orthotics, and prosthetics is the amount described in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, determined as follows:

(A) Computation of local purchase price.—Each carrier under section 1842 shall compute a base local purchase price for the item as follows:

(i) The carrier shall compute a base local purchase price for each item equal to the average reasonable charge in the locality for the purchase of the item for the 12-month period ending with June 1987.

(ii) The carrier shall compute a local purchase price, with respect to the furnishing of each particular item—

(I) in 1989 and 1990, equal to the base local purchase price computed under clause (i) increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 6-month period ending with December 1987, or

(II) in 1991, 1992 or 1993, equal to the local purchase price computed under this clause for the previous year increased by the applicable percentage increase for the year.

(B) Computation of regional purchase price.—With respect to the furnishing of a particular item in each region (as defined by the Secretary), the Secretary shall compute a regional purchase price—

(i) for 1992, equal to the average (weighted by relative volume of all claims among carriers) of the local purchase prices for the carriers in the region computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for the year, and

(ii) for each subsequent year, equal to the regional purchase price computed under this subparagraph for the previous year increased by the applicable percentage increase for the year.

(C) Purchase price recognized.—For purposes of paragraph (1) and subject to subparagraph (D), the amount that is recognized under this paragraph as the purchase price for each item furnished—

(i) in 1989, 1990, or 1991, is 100 percent of the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii);

(ii) in 1992, is the sum of (I) 75 percent of the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for 1992, and (II) 25 percent of the regional purchase price computed under subparagraph (B) for 1992;

(iii) in 1993, is the sum of (I) 50 percent of the local purchase price computed under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) for 1993, and (II) 50 percent of the regional purchase price computed under subparagraph (B) for 1993; and

(iv) in 1994 or a subsequent year, is the regional purchase price computed under subparagraph (B) for that year.

(D) Range on amount recognized.—The amount that is recognized under subparagraph (C) as the purchase price for an item furnished—

(i) in 1992, may not exceed 125 percent, and may not be lower than 85 percent, of the average of the purchase prices recognized under such subparagraph for all the carrier service areas in the United States in that year; and

(ii) in a subsequent year, may not exceed 120 percent, and may not be lower than 90 percent, of the average of the purchase prices recognized under such subparagraph for all the carrier service areas in the United States in that year.

(3) Applicability of certain provisions relating to durable medical equipment.—Paragraphs (12), (15), and (17) and subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (10) and paragraph (11) of subsection (a) shall apply to prosthetic devices, orthotics, and prosthetics in the same manner as such provisions apply to covered items under such subsection.

(4) Definitions.—In this subsection—

(A) the term “applicable percentage increase” means—

(i) for 1991, 0 percent;

(ii) for 1992 and 1993, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year;

(iii) for 1994 and 1995, 0 percent;

(iv) for 1996 and 1997, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year;

(v) for each of the years 1998 through 2000, 1 percent;

(vi) for 2001, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 12-month period ending with June 2000;

(vii) for 2002, 1 percent;

(viii) for 2003, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year;

(ix) for 2004, 2005, and 2006, 0 percent;

(x) for for[96] each of 2007 through 2010, the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year.and

(xi) for 2011 and each subsequent year—

(I) the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year, reduced by—

(II) the productivity adjustment described in section 1886(b)(3)(B)(xi)(II).

The application of subparagraph (A)(xi)(II) may result in the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (A) being less than 0.0 for a year, and may result in payment rates under this subsection for a year being less than such payment rates for the preceding year.

(B) the term “prosthetic devices” has the meaning given such term in section 1861(s)(8), except that such term does not include parenteral and enteral nutrition nutrients, supplies, and equipment and does not include an implantable item for which payment may be made under section 1833(t); and

(C) the term “orthotics and prosthetics” has the meaning given such term in section 1861(s)(9) (and includes shoes described in section 1861(s)(12)), but does not include intraocular lenses or medical supplies (including catheters, catheter supplies, ostomy bags, and supplies related to ostomy care) furnished by a home health agency under section 1861(m)(5).

(i) Payment for Surgical Dressings.—

(1) In general.—Payment under this subsection for surgical dressings (described in section 1861(s)(5)) shall be made in a lump sum amount for the purchase of the item in an amount equal to 80 percent of the lesser of—

(A) the actual charge for the item; or

(B) a payment amount determined in accordance with the methodology described in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (a)(2) (except that in applying such methodology, the national limited payment amount referred to in such subparagraphs shall be initially computed based on local payment amounts using average reasonable charges for the 12-month period ending December 31, 1992, increased by the covered item updates described in such subsection for 1993 and 1994).

(2) Exceptions.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to surgical dressings that are—

(A) furnished as an incident to a physician’s professional service; or

(B) furnished by a home health agency.

(j) Requirements for Suppliers of Medical Equipment and Supplies.—

(1) Issuance and renewal of supplier number.—

(A) Payment.—Except as provided in subparagraph (C), no payment may be made under this part after the date of the enactment of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1994 for items furnished by a supplier of medical equipment and supplies unless such supplier obtains (and renews at such intervals as the Secretary may require) a supplier number.

(B) Standards for possessing a supplier number.—A supplier may not obtain a supplier number unless—

(i) for medical equipment and supplies furnished on or after the date of the enactment of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1994 and before January 1, 1996, the supplier meets standards prescribed by the Secretary in regulations issued on June 18, 1992; and

(ii) for medical equipment and supplies furnished on or after January 1, 1996, the supplier meets revised standards prescribed by the Secretary (in consultation with representatives of suppliers of medical equipment and supplies, carriers, and consumers) that shall include requirements that the supplier—

(I) comply with all applicable State and Federal licensure and regulatory requirements;

(II) maintain a physical facility on appropriate site;

(III) have proof of appropriate liability insurance; and

(IV) meet such other requirements as the Secretary may specify.

(C) Exception for items furnished as incident to a physician’s service.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to medical equipment and supplies furnished incident to a physician’s service.

(D) Prohibition against multiple supplier numbers.—The Secretary may not issue more than one supplier number to any supplier of medical equipment and supplies unless the issuance of more than one number is appropriate to identify subsidiary or regional entities under the supplier’s ownership or control.

(E) Prohibition against delegation of supplier determinations.—The Secretary may not delegate (other than by contract under section 1842) the responsibility to determine whether suppliers meet the standards necessary to obtain a supplier number.

(2) Certificates of medical necessity.—

(A) Limitation on information provided by suppliers on certificates of medical necessity.—

(i) In general.—Effective 60 days after the date of the enactment of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1994, a supplier of medical equipment and supplies may distribute to physicians, or to individuals entitled to benefits under this part, a certificate of medical necessity for commercial purposes which contains no more than the following information completed by the supplier:

(I) An identification of the supplier and the beneficiary to whom such medical equipment and supplies are furnished.

(II) A description of such medical equipment and supplies.

(III) Any product code identifying such medical equipment and supplies.

(IV) Any other administrative information (other than information relating to the beneficiary’s medical condition) identified by the Secretary.

(ii) Information on payment amount and charges.—If a supplier distributes a certificate of medical necessity containing any of the information permitted to be supplied under clause (i), the supplier shall also list on the certificate of medical necessity the fee schedule amount and the supplier’s charge for the medical equipment or supplies being furnished prior to distribution of such certificate to the physician.

(iii) Penalty.—Any supplier of medical equipment and supplies who knowingly and willfully distributes a certificate of medical necessity in violation of clause (i) or fails to provide the information required under clause (ii) is subject to a civil money penalty in an amount not to exceed $1,000 for each such certificate of medical necessity so distributed. The provisions of section 1128A (other than subsections (a) and (b)) shall apply to civil money penalties under this subparagraph in the same manner as they apply to a penalty or proceeding under section 1128A(a).

(B) Definition.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term “certificate of medical necessity” means a form or other document containing information required by the carrier to be submitted to show that an item is reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member.

(3) Coverage and review criteria.—The Secretary shall annually review the coverage and utilization of items of medical equipment and supplies to determine whether such items should be made subject to coverage and utilization review criteria, and if appropriate, shall develop and apply such criteria to such items.

(4) Limitation on patient liability.—If a supplier of medical equipment and supplies (as defined in paragraph (5))—

(A) furnishes an item or service to a beneficiary for which no payment may be made by reason of paragraph (1);

(B) furnishes an item or service to a beneficiary for which payment is denied in advance under subsection (a)(15); or

(C) furnishes an item or service to a beneficiary for which payment is denied under section 1862(a)(1);

any expenses incurred for items and services furnished to an individual by such a supplier not on an assigned basis shall be the responsibility of such supplier. The individual shall have no financial responsibility for such expenses and the supplier shall refund on a timely basis to the individual (and shall be liable to the individual for) any amounts collected from the individual for such items or services. The provisions of subsection (a)(18) shall apply to refunds required under the previous sentence in the same manner as such provisions apply to refunds under such subsection.

(5) Definition.—The term “medical equipment and supplies” means—

(A) durable medical equipment (as defined in section 1861(n));

(B) prosthetic devices (as described in section 1861(s)(8));

(C) orthotics and prosthetics (as described in section 1861(s)(9));

(D) surgical dressings (as described in section 1861(s)(5));

(E) such other items as the Secretary may determine; and

(F) for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (3)—

(i) home dialysis supplies and equipment (as described in section 1861(s)(2)(F)),

(ii) immunosuppressive drugs (as described in section 1861(s)(2)(J)),

(iii) therapeutic shoes for diabetics (as described in section 1861(s)(12)),

(iv) oral drugs prescribed for use as an anticancer therapeutic agent (as described in section 1861(s)(2)(Q)), and

(v) self-administered erythropoetin (as described in section 1861(s)(2)(P)).

(k) Payment for Outpatient Therapy Services and Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Services.—

(1) In general.—With respect to services described in section 1833(a)(8) or 1833(a)(9) for which payment is determined under this subsection, the payment basis shall be—

(A) for services furnished during 1998, the amount determined under paragraph (2); or

(B) for services furnished during a subsequent year, 80 percent of the lesser of—

(i) the actual charge for the services, or

(ii) the applicable fee schedule amount (as defined in paragraph (3)) for the services.

(2) Payment in 1998 based upon adjusted reasonable costs.—The amount under this paragraph for services is the lesser of—

(A) the charges imposed for the services, or

(B) the adjusted reasonable costs (as defined in paragraph (4)) for the services, less 20 percent of the amount of the charges imposed for such services.

(3) Applicable fee schedule amount.—In this subsection, the term “applicable fee schedule amount” means, with respect to services furnished in a year, the amount determined under the fee schedule established under section 1848 for such services furnished during the year or, if there is no such fee schedule established for such services, the amount determined under the fee schedule established for such comparable services as the Secretary specifies.

(4) Adjusted reasonable costs.—In paragraph (2), the term “adjusted reasonable costs” means, with respect to any services, reasonable costs determined for such services, reduced by 10 percent. The 10–percent reduction shall not apply to services described in section 1833(a)(8)(B) (relating to services provided by hospitals).

(5) Uniform coding.—For claims for services submitted on or after April 1, 1998, for which the amount of payment is determined under this subsection, the claim shall include a code (or codes) under a uniform coding system specified by the Secretary that identifies the services furnished.

(6) Restraint on billing.—The provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1842(b)(18) shall apply to therapy services for which payment is made under this subsection in the same manner as they apply to services provided by a practitioner described in section 1842(b)(18)(C).

(7)[97] Adjustment in discount for certain multiple therapy services.—In the case of therapy services furnished on or after April 1, 2013, and for which payment is made under this subsection pursuant to the applicable fee schedule amount (as defined in paragraph (3)), instead of the 25 percent multiple procedure payment reduction specified in the final rule published by the Secretary in the Federal Register on November 29, 2010, the reduction percentage shall be 50 percent.

(l)[98] Establishment of Fee Schedule for Ambulance Services.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall establish a fee schedule for payment for ambulance services whether provided directly by a supplier or provider or under arrangement with a provider under this part through a negotiated rulemaking process described in title 5, United States Code, and in accordance with the requirements of this subsection.

(2) Considerations.—In establishing such fee schedule, the Secretary shall—

(A) establish mechanisms to control increases in expenditures for ambulance services under this part;

(B) establish definitions for ambulance services which link payments to the type of services provided;

(C) consider appropriate regional and operational differences;

(D) consider adjustments to payment rates to account for inflation and other relevant factors; and

(E) phase in the application of the payment rates under the fee schedule in an efficient and fair manner consistent with paragraph (11), except that such phase–in shall provide for full payment of any national mileage rate for ambulance services provided by suppliers that are paid by carriers in any of the 50 States where payment by a carrier for such services for all such suppliers in such State did not, prior to the implementation of the fee schedule, include a separate amount for all mileage within the county from which the beneficiary is transported.

(3) Savings.—In establishing such fee schedule, the Secretary shall—

(A) ensure that the aggregate amount of payments made for ambulance services under this part during 2000 does not exceed the aggregate amount of payments which would have been made for such services under this part during such year if the amendments made by section 4531(a) of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 continued in effect, except that in making such determination the Secretary shall assume an update in such payments for 2002 equal to percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 12–month period ending with June of the previous year reduced in the case of 2002 by 1.0 percentage points;

(B) set the payment amounts provided under the fee schedule for services furnished in 2001 and each subsequent year at amounts equal to the payment amounts under the fee schedule for services furnished during the previous year, increased, subject to subparagraph (C) and the succeeding sentence of this paragraph, by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for the 12–month period ending with June of the previous year reduced in the case of 2002 by 1.0 percentage points; and

(C) for 2011 and each subsequent year, after determining the percentage increase under subparagraph (B) for the year, reduce such percentage increase by the productivity adjustment described in section 1886(b)(3)(B)(xi)(II).

The application of subparagraph (C) may result in the percentage increase under subparagraph (B) being less than 0.0 for a year, and may result in payment rates under the fee schedule under this subsection for a year being less than such payment rates for the preceding year.

(4) Consultation.—In establishing the fee schedule for ambulance services under this subsection, the Secretary shall consult with various national organizations representing individuals and entities who furnish and regulate ambulance services and share with such organizations relevant data in establishing such schedule.

(5) Limitation on review.—There shall be no administrative or judicial review under section 1869 or otherwise of the amounts established under the fee schedule for ambulance services under this subsection, including matters described in paragraph (2).

(6) Restraint on billing.—The provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1842(b)(18) shall apply to ambulance services for which payment is made under this subsection in the same manner as they apply to services provided by a practitioner described in section 1842(b)(18)(C).

(7) Coding system.—The Secretary may require the claim for any services for which the amount of payment is determined under this subsection to include a code (or codes) under a uniform coding system specified by the Secretary that identifies the services furnished.

(8) Services furnished by critical access hospitals.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the Secretary shall pay 101 percent of the reasonable costs incurred in furnishing ambulance services if such services are furnished—

(A) by a critical access hospital (as defined in section 1861(mm)(1)), or

(B) by an entity that is owned and operated by a critical access hospital, but only if the critical access hospital or entity is the only provider or supplier of ambulance services that is located within a 35–mile drive of such critical access hospital.

(9) Transitional assistance for rural providers.—In the case of ground ambulance services furnished on or after July 1, 2001, and before January 1, 2004, for which the transportation originates in a rural area (as defined in section 1886(d)(2)(D)) or in a rural census tract of a metropolitan statistical area (as determined under the most recent modification of the Goldsmith Modification, originally published in the Federal Register on February 27, 1992 (57 Fed. Reg. 6725)), the fee schedule established under this subsection shall provide that, with respect to the payment rate for mileage for a trip above 17 miles, and up to 50 miles, the rate otherwise established shall be increased by not less than 1/2 of the additional payment per mile established for the first 17 miles of such a trip originating in a rural area.

(10) Phase-in providing floor using blend of fee schedule and regional fee schedules.—In carrying out the phase-in under paragraph (2)(E) for each level of ground service furnished in a year, the portion of the payment amount that is based on the fee schedule shall be the greater of the amount determined under such fee schedule (without regard to this paragraph) or the following blended rate of the fee schedule under paragraph (1) and of a regional fee schedule for the region involved:

(A) For 2004 (for services furnished on or after July 1, 2004), the blended rate shall be based 20 percent on the fee schedule under paragraph (1) and 80 percent on the regional fee schedule.

(B) For 2005, the blended rate shall be based 40 percent on the fee schedule under paragraph (1) and 60 percent on the regional fee schedule.

(C) For 2006, the blended rate shall be based 60 percent on the fee schedule under paragraph (1) and 40 percent on the regional fee schedule.

(D) For 2007, 2008, and 2009, the blended rate shall be based 80 percent on the fee schedule under paragraph (1) and 20 percent on the regional fee schedule.

(E) For 2010 and each succeeding year, the blended rate shall be based 100 percent on the fee schedule under paragraph (1).

For purposes of this paragraph, the Secretary shall establish a regional fee schedule for each of the nine census divisions (referred to in section 1886(d)(2)) using the methodology (used in establishing the fee schedule under paragraph (1)) to calculate a regional conversion factor and a regional mileage payment rate and using the same payment adjustments and the same relative value units as used in the fee schedule under such paragraph.

(11) Adjustment in payment for certain long trips.—In the case of ground ambulance services furnished on or after July 1, 2004, and before January 1, 2009, regardless of where the transportation originates, the fee schedule established under this subsection shall provide that, with respect to the payment rate for mileage for a trip above 50 miles the per mile rate otherwise established shall be increased by 1/4 of the payment per mile otherwise applicable to miles in excess of 50 miles in such trip.

(12) Assistance for rural providers furnishing services in low population density areas.—

(A) In general.—In the case of ground ambulance services furnished on or after July 1, 2004, and before January 1, 2014[99], for which the transportation originates in a qualified rural area (identified under subparagraph (B)(iii)), the Secretary shall provide for a percent increase in the base rate of the fee schedule for a trip established under this subsection. In establishing such percent increase, the Secretary shall estimate the average cost per trip for such services (not taking into account mileage) in the lowest quartile as compared to the average cost per trip for such services (not taking into account mileage) in the highest quartile of all rural county populations.

(B) Identification of qualified rural areas.—

(i) Determination of population density in area.—Based upon data from the United States decennial census for the year 2000, the Secretary shall determine, for each rural area, the population density for that area.

(ii) Ranking of areas.—The Secretary shall rank each such area based on such population density.

(iii) Identification of qualified rural areas.—The Secretary shall identify those areas (in subparagraph (A) referred to as “qualified rural areas”) with the lowest population densities that represent, if each such area were weighted by the population of such area (as used in computing such population densities), an aggregate total of 25 percent of the total of the population of all such areas.

(iv) Rural area.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term “rural area” has the meaning given such term in section 1886(d)(2)(D). If feasible, the Secretary shall treat a rural census tract of a metropolitan statistical area (as determined under the most recent modification of the Goldsmith Modification, originally published in the Federal Register on February 27, 1992 (57 Fed. Reg. 6725) as a rural area for purposes of this paragraph.

(v) Judicial review.—There shall be no administrative or judicial review under section 1869, 1878, or otherwise, respecting the identification of an area under this subparagraph.

(13) Temporary increase for ground ambulance services.

(A) In general.—After computing the rates with respect to ground ambulance services under the other applicable provisions of this subsection, in the case of such services furnished on or after July 1, 2004, and before January 1, 2007, and for such services furnished on or after July 1, 2008 and before January 1, 2014,,[100] for which the transportation originates in—

(i) a rural area described in paragraph (9) or in a rural census tract described in such paragraph, the fee schedule established under this section shall provide that the rate for the service otherwise established, after the application of any increase under paragraphs (11) and (12), shall be increased by 2 percent (or 3 percent if such service is furnished on or after July 1, 2008, and before January 1, 2014[101]); and

(ii) an area not described in clause (i), the fee schedule established under this subsection shall provide that the rate for the service otherwise established, after the application of any increase under paragraph (11), shall be increased by 1 percent (or 2 percent if such service is furnished on or after July 1, 2008, and before January 1, 2014[102]).

(B) Application of increased payments after applicable period.—The increased payments under subparagraph (A) shall not be taken into account in calculating payments for services furnished after the applicable period specified in such subparagraph.

(14) Providing appropriate coverage of rural air ambulance services.—

(A) In general.—The regulations described in section 1861(s)(7) shall provide, to the extent that any ambulance services (whether ground or air) may be covered under such section, that a rural air ambulance service (as defined in subparagraph (C)) is reimbursed under this subsection at the air ambulance rate if the air ambulance service—

(i) is reasonable and necessary based on the health condition of the individual being transported at or immediately prior to the time of the transport; and

(ii) complies with equipment and crew requirements established by the Secretary.

(B) Satisfaction of requirement of medically necessary.—The requirement of subparagraph (A)(i) is deemed to be met for a rural air ambulance service if—

(i) subject to subparagraph (D), such service is requested by a physician or other qualified medical personnel (as specified by the Secretary) who certifies or reasonably determines that the individual’s condition is such that the time needed to transport the individual by land or the instability of transportation by land poses a threat to the individual’s survival or seriously endangers the individual’s health; or

(ii) such service is furnished pursuant to a protocol that is established by a State or regional emergency medical service (EMS) agency and recognized or approved by the Secretary under which the use of an air ambulance is recommended, if such agency does not have an ownership interest in the entity furnishing such service.

(C) Rural air ambulance service defined.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term “rural air ambulance service” means fixed wing and rotary wing air ambulance service in which the point of pick up of the individual occurs in a rural area (as defined in section 1886(d)(2)(D)) or in a rural census tract of a metropolitan statistical area (as determined under the most recent modification of the Goldsmith Modification, originally published in the Federal Register on February 27, 1992 (57 Fed. Reg. 6725)).

(D) Limitation.—

(i) In general.—Subparagraph (B)(i) shall not apply if there is a financial or employment relationship between the person requesting the rural air ambulance service and the entity furnishing the ambulance service, or an entity under common ownership with the entity furnishing the air ambulance service, or a financial relationship between an immediate family member of such requester and such an entity.

(ii) Exception.—Where a hospital and the entity furnishing rural air ambulance services are under common ownership, clause (i) shall not apply to remuneration (through employment or other relationship) by the hospital of the requester or immediate family member if the remuneration is for provider-based physician services furnished in a hospital (as described in section 1887) which are reimbursed under part A and the amount of the remuneration is unrelated directly or indirectly to the provision of rural air ambulance services.

(15)[103] Payment adjustment for non-emergency ambulance transports for esrd beneficiaries.—The fee schedule amount otherwise applicable under the preceding provisions of this subsection shall be reduced by 10 percent for ambulance services furnished on or after October 1, 2013, consisting of non-emergency basic life support services involving transport of an individual with end-stage renal disease for renal dialysis services (as described in section 1881(b)(14)(B)) furnished other than on an emergency basis by a provider of services or a renal dialysis facility

(m) Payment for Telehealth Services.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall pay for telehealth services that are furnished via a telecommunications system by a physician (as defined in section 1861(r)) or a practitioner (described in section 1842(b)(18)(C)) to an eligible telehealth individual enrolled under this part notwithstanding that the individual physician or practitioner providing the telehealth service is not at the same location as the beneficiary. For purposes of the preceding sentence, in the case of any Federal telemedicine demonstration program conducted in Alaska or Hawaii, the term “telecommunications system” includes store-and-forward technologies that provide for the asynchronous transmission of health care information in single or multimedia formats.

(2) Payment amount.—

(A) Distant site.—The Secretary shall pay to a physician or practitioner located at a distant site that furnishes a telehealth service to an eligible telehealth individual an amount equal to the amount that such physician or practitioner would have been paid under this title had such service been furnished without the use of a telecommunications system.

(B) Facility fee for originating site.—With respect to a telehealth service, subject to section 1833(a)(1)(U), there shall be paid to the originating site a facility fee equal to—

(i) for the period beginning on October 1, 2001, and ending on December 31, 2001, and for 2002, $20; and

(ii) for a subsequent year, the facility fee specified in clause (i) or this clause for the preceding year increased by the percentage increase in the MEI (as defined in section 1842(i)(3)) for such subsequent year.

(C) Telepresenter not required.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as requiring an eligible telehealth individual to be presented by a physician or practitioner at the originating site for the furnishing of a service via a telecommunications system, unless it is medically necessary (as determined by the physician or practitioner at the distant site).

(3) Limitation on beneficiary charges.—

(A) Physician and practitioner.—The provisions of section 1848(g) and subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1842(b)(18) shall apply to a physician or practitioner receiving payment under this subsection in the same manner as they apply to physicians or practitioners under such sections.

(B) Originating site.—The provisions of section 1842(b)(18) shall apply to originating sites receiving a facility fee in the same manner as they apply to practitioners under such section.

(4) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection:

(A) Distant site.—The term “distant site” means the site at which the physician or practitioner is located at the time the service is provided via a telecommunications system.

(B) Eligible telehealth individual.—The term “eligible telehealth individual” means an individual enrolled under this part who receives a telehealth service furnished at an originating site.

(C) Originating site.—

(i) In general.—The term “originating site” means only those sites described in clause (ii) at which the eligible telehealth individual is located at the time the service is furnished via a telecommunications system and only if such site is located—

(I) in an area that is designated as a rural health professional shortage area under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 254e(a)(1)(A));

(II) in a county that is not included in a Metropolitan Statistical Area; or

(III) from an entity that participates in a Federal telemedicine demonstration project that has been approved by (or receives funding from) the Secretary of Health and Human Services as of December 31, 2000.

(ii) Sites described.—The sites referred to in clause (i) are the following sites:

(I) The office of a physician or practitioner.

(II) A critical access hospital (as defined in section 1861(mm)(1)).

(III) A rural health clinic (as defined in section 1861(aa)(2)).

(IV) A Federally qualified health center (as defined in section 1861(aa)(4)).

(V) A hospital (as defined in section 1861(e)).

(VI) A hospital-based or critical access hospital- based renal dialysis center (including satellites).

(VII) A skilled nursing facility (as defined in section 1819(a)).

(VIII) A community mental health center (as defined in section 1861(ff)(3)(B))

(D) Physician.—The term “physician” has the meaning given that term in section 1861(r).

(E) Practitioner.—The term “practitioner” has the meaning given that term in section 1842(b)(18)(C).

(F) Telehealth service.—

(i) In general.—The term “telehealth service” means professional consultations, office visits, and office psychiatry services (identified as of July 1, 2000, by HCPCS codes 99241–99275, 99201–99215, 90804–90809, and 90862 (and as subsequently modified by the Secretary)), and any additional service specified by the Secretary.

(ii) Yearly update.—The Secretary shall establish a process that provides, on an annual basis, for the addition or deletion of services (and HCPCS codes), as appropriate, to those specified in clause (i) for authorized payment under paragraph (1).

(n) Authority to Modify or Eliminate Coverage of Certain Preventive Services for Eligible Adults in Medicaid.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, effective beginning on January 1, 2010, if the Secretary determines appropriate, the Secretary may—

(1) modify—

(A) the coverage of any preventive service described in subparagraph (A) of section 1861(ddd)(3) to the extent that such modification is consistent with the recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force; and the services included in the initial preventive physical examination described in subparagraph (B) of such section; and

(B) the services included in the initial preventive physical examination described in subparagraph (B) of such section; and

(2) provide that no payment shall be made under this title for a preventive service described in subparagraph (A) of such section that has not received a grade of A, B, C, or I by such Task Force.

(o) Development and Implementation of Prospective Payment System.—

(1) Development.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall develop a prospective payment system for payment for Federally qualified health center services furnished by Federally qualified health centers under this title. Such system shall include a process for appropriately describing the services furnished by Federally qualified health centers and shall establish payment rates for specific payment codes based on such appropriate descriptions of services. Such system shall be established to take into account the type, intensity, and duration of services furnished by Federally qualified health centers. Such system may include adjustments, including geographic adjustments, determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(B) Collection of data and evaluation.—By not later than January 1, 2011, the Secretary shall require Federally qualified health centers to submit to the Secretary such information as the Secretary may require in order to develop and implement the prospective payment system under this subsection, including the reporting of services using HCPCS codes.

(2) Implementation.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding section 1833(a)(3)(A), the Secretary shall provide, for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014, for payments of prospective payment rates for Federally qualified health center services furnished by Federally qualified health centers under this title in accordance with the prospective payment system developed by the Secretary under paragraph (1).

(B) Payments.—

(i) Initial payments.—The Secretary shall implement such prospective payment system so that the estimated aggregate amount of prospective payment rates (determined prior to the application of section 1833(a)(1)(Z)) under this title for Federally qualified health center services in the first year that such system is implemented is equal to 100 percent of the estimated amount of reasonable costs (determined without the application of a per visit payment limit or productivity screen and prior to the application of section 1866(a)(2)(A)(ii)) that would have occurred for such services under this title in such year if the system had not been implemented.

(ii) Payments in subsequent years.—Payment rates in years after the year of implementation of such system shall be the payment rates in the previous year increased—

(I) in the first year after implementation of such system, by the percentage increase in the MEI (as defined in section 1842(i)(3)) for the year involved; and

(II) in subsequent years, by the percentage increase in a market basket of Federally qualified health center goods and services as promulgated through regulations, or if such an index is not available, by the percentage increase in the MEI (as defined in section 1842(i)(3)) for the year involved.

(C) Preparation for pps implementation.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may establish and implement by program instruction or otherwise the payment codes to be used under the prospective payment system under this section.


[87]  December 8, 2003.

[88]  P.L. 112-240, §636 (a)(2), struck out “subparagraph (G)” and inserted “subparagraphs (G) and (H)”, effective January 2, 2013.

[89]  P.L. 112-240, §636 (a)(2), added this new subparagraph (H), effective January 2, 2013.

[90]  See Vol. II, P.L. 111–148, §6407(c) and (d), with respect to the application to other areas under Medicare and application to Medicaid, respectively.

[91]  See Vol. II, P.L. 75-717, §513(a)(1)(C).

[92]  P.L. 112-240, §636 (b), added this new paragraph (22), effective January 2, 2013.

[93]  See Vol. II, P.L. 78-410, §354.

[94]  See Vol. II, P.L. 110-275, §135(b), with respect to a demonstration project to assess the appropriate use of imaging services.

[95]  As in original; possibly should be “a”.

[96]  As in original.

[97]  P.L. 112-240, §633(b), added this new paragraph (7), effective January 2, 2013.

[98]  See Vol. II, P.L. 108-173, §414(f), with respect to a final GAO report on cost and access of ambulance services.

See Vol. II, P.L. 110-275, §146(b), with respect to air ambulance payment improvements.

See Vol. II, P.L. 112-96, §3007(d), with respect to a GAO Update Report and 3007(e), with respect to a MedPac Report.

See Vol. II, P.L. 112-240, §604(d), with respect to studies of ambulance costs.

[99]  P.L. 112-78, §306(c), struck out “January 1, 2012” and inserted “March 1, 2012*”, effective December 23, 2011.

*P.L. 112-96, 3007(c), struck out “March 1, 2012” and inserted “January 1, 2013**”, effective February 22, 2012.

**P.L. 112-96, 3007(c), struck out “January 1, 2013” and inserted “January 1, 2014”, effective January 2, 2013.

[100]  P.L. 112-78, §306(a)(1), struck out “January 1, 2012” and inserted “March 1, 2012*”, effective December 23, 2011.

*P.L. 112-96, §3007(a)(1), struck out “March 1, 2012” and inserted “January 1, 2013**”, effective February 22, 2012.

**P.L. 112-240, §604(a)(1), struck out “January 1, 2013” and inserted “January 1, 2014”, effective January 2, 2013.

As in original. Second comma added by P.L. 111-309, §106(a)(1).

[101]  P.L. 112-78, §306(a)(2), struck out “January 1, 2012” and inserted “March 1, 2012*”, effective December 23, 2011.

*P.L. 112-96, §3007(a)(2), struck out “March 1, 2012” and inserted “January 1, 2013*”, effective February 22, 2012.

**P.L. 112-240, §604(a)(2), struck out “January 1, 2013” and inserted “January 1, 2014”, effective January 2, 2013.

[102]  P.L. 112-78, §306(a)(2), struck out “January 1, 2012” and inserted “March 1, 2012*”, effective December 23, 2011.

*P.L. 112-96, §3007(a)(2), struck out “March 1, 2012” and inserted “January 1, 2013”, effective February 22, 2012.

**P.L. 112-240, §604(a)(2), struck out “January 1, 2013” and inserted “January 1, 2014”, effective January 2, 2013.

[103]  P.L. 112-240, §637, added this new paragraph (15), effective January 2, 2013.