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PAYMENT TO SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES FOR ROUTINE SERVICE COSTS

Sec1888[42 U.S.C. 1395yy] (a) The Secretary, in determining the amount of the payments which may be made under this title with respect to routine service costs of extended care services shall not recognize as reasonable (in the efficient delivery of health services) per diem costs of such services to the extent that such per diem costs exceed the following per diem limits, except as otherwise provided in this section:

(1) With respect to freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in urban areas, the limit shall be equal to 112 percent of the mean per diem routine service costs for freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in urban areas.

(2) With respect to freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in rural areas, the limit shall be equal to 112 percent of the mean per diem routine service costs for freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in rural areas.

(3) With respect to hospital-based skilled nursing facilities located in urban areas, the limit shall be equal to the sum of the limit for freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in urban areas, plus 50 percent of the amount by which 112 percent of the mean per diem routine service costs for hospital-based skilled nursing facilities located in urban areas exceeds the limit for freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in urban areas.

(4) With respect to hospital-based skilled nursing facilities located in rural areas, the limit shall be equal to the sum of the limit for freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in rural areas, plus 50 percent of the amount by which 112 percent of the mean per diem routine service costs for hospital-based skilled nursing facilities located in rural areas exceeds the limit for freestanding skilled nursing facilities located in rural areas.

In applying this subsection the Secretary shall make appropriate adjustments to the labor related portion of the costs based upon an appropriate wage index, and shall, for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1992, on or after October 1, 1995, and every 2 years thereafter, provide for an update to the per diem cost limits described in this subsection, except that the limits effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1997, shall be based on the limits effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1996.

(b) With respect to a hospital-based skilled nursing facility, the Secretary may not recognize as reasonable the portion of the cost differences between hospital-based and freestanding skilled nursing facilities attributable to excess overhead allocations.

(c) The Secretary may make adjustments in the limits set forth in subsection (a) with respect to any skilled nursing facility to the extent the Secretary deems appropriate, based upon case mix or circumstances beyond the control of the facility. The Secretary shall publish the data and criteria to be used for purposes of this subsection on an annual basis.

(d)(1) Subject to subsection (c), any skilled nursing facility may choose to be paid under this subsection on the basis of a prospective payment for all routine service costs (including the costs of services required to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being of each resident eligible for benefits under this title) and capital-related costs of extended care services provided in a cost reporting period if such facility had, in the preceding cost reporting period, fewer than 1,500 patient days with respect to which payments were made under this title. Such prospective payment shall be in lieu of payments which would otherwise be made for routine service costs pursuant to section 1861(v) and subsections (a) through (c) of this section and capital-related costs pursuant to section 1861(v). This subsection shall not apply to a facility for any cost reporting period immediately following a cost reporting period in which such facility had 1,500 or more patient days with respect to which payments were made under this title, without regard to whether payments were made under this subsection during such preceding cost reporting period.

(2)(A) The amount of the payment under this section shall be determined on a per diem basis.

(B) Subject to the limitations of subparagraph (C), for skilled nursing facilities located—

(i) in an urban area, the amount shall be equal to 105 percent of the mean of the per diem reasonable routine service and capital-related costs of extended care services for skilled nursing facilities in urban areas within the same region, determined without regard to the limitations of subsection (a) and adjusted for different area wage levels, and

(ii) in a rural area the amount shall be equal to 105 percent of the mean of the per diem reasonable routine service and capital-related costs of extended care services for skilled nursing facilities in rural areas within the same region, determined without regard to the limitations of subsection (a) and adjusted for different area wage levels.

(C) The per diem amounts determined under subparagraph (B) shall not exceed the limit on routine service costs determined under subsection (a) with respect to the facility, adjusted to take into account average capital-related costs with respect to the type and location of the facility.

(3) For purposes of this subsection, urban and rural areas shall be determined in the same manner as for purposes of subsection (a), and the term “region” shall have the same meaning as under section 1886(d)(2)(D).

(4) The Secretary shall establish the prospective payment amounts for cost reporting periods beginning in a fiscal year at least 90 days prior to the beginning of such fiscal year, on the basis of the most recent data available for a 12-month period. A skilled nursing facility must notify the Secretary of its intention to be paid pursuant to this subsection for a cost reporting period no later than 30 days before the beginning of that period.

(5) The Secretary shall provide for a simplified cost report to be filed by facilities being paid pursuant to this subsection, which shall require only the cost information necessary for determining prospective payment amounts pursuant to paragraph (2) and reasonable costs of ancillary services.

(6) In lieu of payment on a cost basis for ancillary services provided by a facility which is being paid pursuant to this subsection, the Secretary may pay for such ancillary services on a reasonable charge basis if the Secretary determines that such payment basis will provide an equitable level of reimbursement and will ease the reporting burden of the facility.

(7) In computing the rates of payment to be made under this subsection, there shall be taken into account the costs described in the last sentence of section 1861(v)(1)(E) (relating to compliance with nursing facility requirements and of conducting nurse aide training and competency evaluation programs and competency evaluation programs).

(e) Prospective Payment.—

(1) Payment provision.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, subject to paragraph (7), (11) and (12), the amount of the payment for all costs (as defined in paragraph (2)(B)) of covered skilled nursing facility services (as defined in paragraph (2)(A)) for each day of such services furnished—

(A) in a cost reporting period during the transition period (as defined in paragraph (2)(E)), is equal to the sum of—

(i) the non–Federal percentage of the facility–specific per diem rate (computed under paragraph (3)), and

(ii) the Federal percentage of the adjusted Federal per diem rate (determined under paragraph (4)) applicable to the facility; and

(B) after the transition period is equal to the adjusted Federal per diem rate applicable to the facility.

(2) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection:

(A) Covered skilled nursing facility services.—

(i) In general.—The term “covered skilled nursing facility services”—

(I) means post–hospital extended care services as defined in section 1861(i) for which benefits are provided under part A; and

(II) includes all items and services (other than items and services described in clause (ii), (iii), and (iv) for which payment may be made under part B and which are furnished to an individual who is a resident of a skilled nursing facility during the period in which the individual is provided covered post–hospital extended care services.

(ii) Services excluded.—Services described in this clause are physicians’ services, services described by clauses (i) and (ii) of section 1861(s)(2)(K), certified nurse–midwife services, qualified psychologist services, services of a certified registered nurse anesthetist, items and services described in subparagraphs (F) and (O) of section 1861(s)(2), telehealth services furnished under section 1834(m)(4)(C)(ii)(VII), and, only with respect to services furnished during 1998, the transportation costs of electrocardiogram equipment for electrocardiogram test services (HCPCS Code R0076). Services described in this clause do not include any physical, occupational, or speech–language therapy services regardless of whether or not the services are furnished by, or under the supervision of, a physician or other health care professional.

(iii) Exclusion of Certain Additional Items And Services.—Items and services described in this clause are the following:

(I) Ambulance services furnished to an individual in conjunction with renal dialysis services described in section 1861(s)(2)(F).

(II) Chemotherapy items (identified as of July 1, 1999, by HCPCS codes J9000-J9020; J9040-J9151; J9170-J9185; J9200-J9201; J9206-J9208; J9211; J9230-J9245; and J9265-J9600 (and as subsequently modified by the Secretary)) and any additional chemotherapy items identified by the Secretary.

(III) Chemotherapy administration services (identified as of July 1, 1999, by HCPCS codes 36260-36262; 36489;36530-36535; 36640; 36823; and 96405-96542 (and as subsequently modified by the Secretary)) and any additional chemotherapy administration services identified by the Secretary.

(IV) Radioisotope services (identified as of July 1, 1999, by HCPCS codes 79030-79440 (and as subsequently modified by the Secretary)) and any additional radioisotope services identified by the Secretary.

(V) Customized prosthetic devices (commonly known as artificial limbs or components of artificial limbs) under the following HCPCS codes (as of July 1, 1999 (and as subsequently modified by the Secretary)), and any additional customized prosthetic devices identified by the Secretary, if delivered to an inpatient for use during the stay in the skilled nursing facility and intended to be used by the individual after discharge from the facility: L5050-L5340; L5500-L5611; L5613-L5986; L5988; L6050-L6370; L6400-L6880; L6920-L7274; and L7362-7366.

(iv) Exclusion of certain rural health clinic and federally qualified health center services.—Services described in this clause are—

(I) rural health clinic services (as defined in paragraph (1) of section 1861(aa)); and

(II) federally qualified health center services (as defined in paragraph (3) of such section);

that would be described in clause (ii) if such services were furnished by an individual not affiliated with a rural health clinic or a federally qualified health center.

(B) All costs.—The term “all costs” means routine service costs, ancillary costs, and capital-related costs of covered skilled nursing facility services, but does not include costs associated with approved educational activities.

(C) Non-federal percentage; federal percentage.—For—

(i) the first cost reporting period (as defined in subparagraph (D)) of a facility, the “non-Federal percentage” is 75 percent and the “Federal percentage” is 25 percent;

(ii) the next cost reporting period of such facility, the “non-Federal percentage” is 50 percent and the “Federal percentage” is 50 percent; and

(iii) the subsequent cost reporting period of such facility, the “non-Federal percentage” is 25 percent and the “Federal percentage” is 75 percent.

(D) First cost reporting period.—The term “first cost reporting period” means, with respect to a skilled nursing facility, the first cost reporting period of the facility beginning on or after July 1, 1998.

(E) Transition period.—

(i) In general.—The term “transition period” means, with respect to a skilled nursing facility, the 3 cost reporting periods of the facility beginning with the first cost reporting period.

(ii) Treatment of new skilled nursing facilities.—In the case of a skilled nursing facility that first received payment for services under this title on or after October 1, 1995, payment for such services shall be made under this subsection as if all services were furnished after the transition period.

(3) Determination of facility specific per diem rates.—The Secretary shall determine a facility–specific per diem rate for each skilled nursing facility not described in paragraph (2)(E)(ii) for a cost reporting period as follows:

(A) Determining base payments.—The Secretary shall determine, on a per diem basis, the total of—

(i) the allowable costs of extended care services for the facility for cost reporting periods beginning in fiscal year 1995, including costs associated with facilities described in subsection (d), with appropriate adjustments (as determined by the Secretary) to non-settled cost reports or, in the case of a facility participating in the Nursing Home Case-Mix and Quality Demonstration (RUGS-III), the RUGS-III rate received by the facility during the cost reporting period beginning in 1997, and

(ii) an estimate of the amounts that would be payable under part B (disregarding any applicable deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments) for covered skilled nursing facility services described in paragraph (2)(A)(i)(II) the applicable cost reporting period described in clause (i) to an individual who is a resident of the facility, regardless of whether or not the payment was made to the facility or to another entity.

In making appropriate adjustments under clause (i), the Secretary shall take into account exceptions and shall take into account exemptions but, with respect to exemptions, only to the extent that routine costs do not exceed 150 percent of the routine cost limits otherwise applicable but for the exemption.

(B) Update to first cost reporting period.—The Secretary shall update the amount determined under subparagraph (A), for each cost reporting period after the applicable cost reporting period described in subparagraph (A)(i) and up to the first cost reporting period by a factor equal to the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage increase minus 1.0 percentage point.

(C) Updating to applicable cost reporting period.—The Secretary shall update the amount determined under subparagraph (B) for each cost reporting period beginning with the first cost reporting period and up to and including the cost reporting period involved by a factor equal to the facility–specific update factor.

(D) Facility-specific update factor.—For purposes of this paragraph, the “facility-specific update factor” for cost reporting periods beginning during—

(i) during each of fiscal years 1998 and 1999, is equal to the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage increase for such fiscal year minus 1 percentage point, and

(ii) during each subsequent fiscal year is equal to the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage increase for such fiscal year.

(4) Federal per diem rate.—

(A) Determination of historical per diem for facilities.—For each skilled nursing facility that received payments for post–hospital extended care services during a cost reporting period beginning in fiscal year 1995 and that was subject to (and not exempted from) the per diem limits referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) (and facilities described in subsection (d)), the Secretary shall estimate, on a per diem basis for such cost reporting period, the total of—

(i) the allowable costs of extended care services (excluding exceptions payments) for the facility for cost reporting periods beginning in 1995 with appropriate adjustments (as determined by the Secretary) to non–settled cost reports, and

(ii) an estimate of the amounts that would be payable under part B (disregarding any applicable deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments) for covered skilled nursing facility services described in paragraph (2)(A)(i)(II) furnished during such period to an individual who is a resident of the facility, regardless of whether or not the payment was made to the facility or to another entity.

(B) Update to first fiscal year.—The Secretary shall update the amount determined under subparagraph (A), for each cost reporting period after the cost reporting period described in subparagraph (A)(i) and up to the first cost reporting period by a factor equal to the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage increase reduced (on an annualized basis) by 1 percentage point.

(C) Computation of standardized per diem rate.—The Secretary shall standardize the amount updated under subparagraph (B) for each facility by—

(i) adjusting for variations among facilities by area in the average facility wage level per diem, and

(ii) adjusting for variations in case mix per diem among facilities.

(D) Computation of weighted average per diem rates.—

(i) All facilities.—The Secretary shall compute a weighted average per diem rate for all facilities by computing an average of the standardized amounts computed under subparagraph (C), weighted for each facility by the number of days of extended care services furnished during the cost reporting period referred to in subparagraph (A).

(ii) Freestanding facilities.—The Secretary shall compute a weighted average per diem rate for freestanding facilities by computing an average of the standardized amounts computed under subparagraph (C) only for such facilities, weighted for each facility by the number of days of extended care services furnished during the cost reporting period referred to in subparagraph (A).

(iii) Separate computation.—The Secretary may compute and apply such averages separately for facilities located in urban and rural areas (as defined in section 1886(d)(2)(D)).

(E) Updating.—

(i) Initial period.—For the initial period beginning on July 1, 1998, and ending on September 30, 1999, the Secretary shall compute for skilled nursing facilities an unadjusted Federal per diem rate equal to the average of the weighted average per diem rates computed under clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (D), increased by skilled nursing facility market basket percentage change for such period minus 1 percentage point.

(ii) Subsequent fiscal years.—The Secretary shall compute an unadjusted Federal per diem rate equal to the Federal per diem rate computed under this subparagraph—

(I) for fiscal year 2000, the rate computed for the initial period described in clause (i), increased by the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage change for the initial period minus 1 percentage point;

(II) for fiscal year 2001, the rate computed for the previous fiscal year increased by the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage change for the fiscal year;

(III) for each of fiscal years 2002 and 2003, the rate computed for the previous fiscal year increased by the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage change for the fiscal year involved minus 0.5 percentage points; and

(IV) for each subsequent fiscal year, the rate computed for the previous fiscal year increased by the skilled nursing facility market basket percentage change for the fiscal year involved.

(F) Adjustment for case mix creep.—Insofar as the Secretary determines that the adjustments under subparagraph (G)(i) for a previous fiscal year (or estimates that such adjustments for a future fiscal year) did (or are likely to) result in a change in aggregate payments under this subsection during the fiscal year that are a result of changes in the coding or classification of residents that do not reflect real changes in case mix, the Secretary may adjust unadjusted Federal per diem rates for subsequent fiscal years so as to eliminate the effect of such coding or classification changes.

(G) Determination of federal rate.—The Secretary shall compute for each skilled nursing facility for each fiscal year (beginning with the initial period described in subparagraph (E)(i)) an adjusted Federal per diem rate equal to the unadjusted Federal per diem rate determined under subparagraph (E), as adjusted under subparagraph (F), and as further adjusted as follows:

(i) Adjustment for case mix.—The Secretary shall provide for an appropriate adjustment to account for case mix. Such adjustment shall be based on a resident classification system, established by the Secretary, that accounts for the relative resource utilization of different patient types. The case mix adjustment shall be based on resident assessment data and other data that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(ii) Adjustment for geographic variations in labor costs.—The Secretary shall adjust the portion of such per diem rate attributable to wages and wage–related costs for the area in which the facility is located compared to the national average of such costs using an appropriate wage index as determined by the Secretary. Such adjustment shall be done in a manner that does not result in aggregate payments under this subsection that are greater or less than those that would otherwise be made if such adjustment had not been made.

(iii) Adjustment for exclusion of certain additional items and services.—The Secretary shall provide for an appropriate proportional reduction in payments so that beginning with fiscal year 2001, the aggregate amount of such reductions is equal to the aggregate increase in payments attributable to the exclusion effected under clause (iii) of paragraph (2)(A).

(H) Publication of information on per diem rates.—The Secretary shall provide for publication in the Federal Register, before May 1, 1998 (with respect to fiscal period described in subparagraph (E)(i)) and before the August 1 preceding each succeeding fiscal year (with respect to that succeeding fiscal year), of—

(i) the unadjusted Federal per diem rates to be applied to days of covered skilled nursing facility services furnished during the fiscal year,

(ii) the case mix classification system to be applied under subparagraph (G)(i) with respect to such services during the fiscal year, and

(iii) the factors to be applied in making the area wage adjustment under subparagraph (G)(ii) with respect to such services.

(5) Skilled nursing facility market basket index and percentage.—For purposes of this subsection:

(A) Skilled nursing facility market basket index.—The Secretary shall establish a skilled nursing facility market basket index that reflects changes over time in the prices of an appropriate mix of goods and services included in covered skilled nursing facility services.

(B) Skilled nursing facility market basket percentage.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clause (ii), the term “skilled nursing facility market basket percentage” means, for a fiscal year or other annual period and as calculated by the Secretary, the percentage change in the skilled nursing facility market basket index (established under subparagraph (A)) from the midpoint of the prior fiscal year (or period) to the midpoint of the fiscal year (or other period) involved.

(ii) Adjustment.—For fiscal year 2012 and each subsequent fiscal year, after determining the percentage described in clause (i), the Secretary shall reduce such percentage by the productivity adjustment described in section 1886(b)(3)(B)(xi)(II). The application of the preceding sentence may result in such percentage being less than 0.0 for a fiscal year, and may result in payment rates under this subsection for a fiscal year being less than such payment rates for the preceding fiscal year.

(6) Submission of resident assessment data.—A skilled nursing facility, or a facility described in paragraph (7)(B), shall provide the Secretary, in a manner and within the timeframes prescribed by the Secretary, the resident assessment data necessary to develop and implement the rates under this subsection. For purposes of meeting such requirement, a skilled nursing facility, or a facility described in paragraph (7), may submit the resident assessment data required under section 1819(b)(3), using the standard instrument designated by the State under section 1819(e)(5).

(7) Treatment of medicare swing bed hospitals.—

(A) Transition.—Subject to subparagraph (C), the Secretary shall determine an appropriate manner in which to apply this subsection to the facilities described in subparagraph (B), (other than critical access hospitals) taking into account the purposes of this subsection, and shall provide that at the end of the transition period (as defined in paragraph (2)(E)) such facilities shall be paid only under this subsection. Payment shall not be made under this subsection to such facilities for cost reporting periods beginning before such date (not earlier than July 1, 1999) as the Secretary specifies.

(B) Facilities described.—The facilities described in this subparagraph are facilities that have in effect an agreement described in section 1883.

(C) Exemption from pps of swing-bed services furnished in critical access hospitals.—The prospective payment system established under this subsection shall not apply to services furnished by a critical access hospital pursuant to an agreement under section 1883.

(8) Limitation on review.—There shall be no administrative or judicial review under section 1869, 1878, or otherwise of—

(A) the establishment of Federal per diem rates under paragraph (4), including the computation of the standardized per diem rates under paragraph (4)(C), adjustments and corrections for case mix under paragraphs (4)(F) and (4)(G)(i), adjustments for variations in labor-related costs under paragraph (4)(G)(ii) and adjustments under paragraph (4)(G)(iii);

(B) the establishment of facility specific rates before July 1, 1999, (except any determination of costs paid under part A of this title); and

(C) the establishment of transitional amounts under paragraph (7).

(9) Payment for certain services.—In the case of an item or service furnished to a resident of a skilled nursing facility or a part of a facility that includes a skilled nursing facility (as determined under regulations) for which payment would (but for this paragraph) be made under part B in an amount determined in accordance with section 1833(a)(2)(B), the amount of the payment under such part shall be the amount provided under the fee schedule for such item or service. In the case of an item or service described in clause (iii) of paragraph (2)(A) that would be payable under part A but for the exclusion of such item or service under such clause, payment shall be made for the item or service, in an amount otherwise determined under part B of this title for such item or service, from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under section 1817 (rather than from the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund under section 1841).

(10) Required coding.—No payment may be made under part B for items and services (other than services described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii)) furnished to an individual who is a resident of a skilled nursing facility or of a part of a facility that includes a skilled nursing facility (as determined under regulations), unless the claim for such payment includes a code (or codes) under a uniform coding system specified by the Secretary that identifies the items or services furnished.

(11) Permitting facilities to waive 3-year transition.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(A), a facility may elect to have the amount of the payment for all costs of covered skilled nursing facility services for each day of such services furnished in cost reporting periods beginning no earlier than 30 days before the date of such election determined pursuant to paragraph (1)(B).

(12) Payment rule for certain facilities.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), in the case of a resident of a skilled nursing facility who is afflicted with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the per diem amount of payment otherwise applicable (determined without regard to any increase under section 101 of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999, or under section 314(a) of Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000), shall be increased by 128 percent to reflect increased costs associated with such residents.

(B) Sunset.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply on and after such date as the Secretary certifies that there is an appropriate adjustment in the case mix under paragraph (4)(G)(i) to compensate for the increased costs associated with residents described in such subparagraph.

(f) Reporting of Direct Care Expenditures.—

(1) In general.—For cost reports submitted under this title for cost reporting periods beginning on or after the date that is 2 years after the date of the enactment of this subsection, skilled nursing facilities shall separately report expenditures for wages and benefits for direct care staff (breaking out (at a minimum) registered nurses, licensed professional nurses, certified nurse assistants, and other medical and therapy staff).

(2) Modification of form.—The Secretary, in consultation with private sector accountants experienced with Medicare and Medicaid nursing facility home cost reports, shall redesign such reports to meet the requirement of paragraph (1) not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this subsection.

(3) Categorization by functional accounts.—Not later than 30 months after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary, working in consultation with the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, the Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, and other expert parties the Secretary determines appropriate, shall take the expenditures listed on cost reports, as modified under paragraph (1), submitted by skilled nursing facilities and categorize such expenditures, regardless of any source of payment for such expenditures, for each skilled nursing facility into the following functional accounts on an annual basis:

(A) Spending on direct care services (including nursing, therapy, and medical services).

(B) Spending on indirect care (including housekeeping and dietary services).

(C) Capital assets (including building and land costs).

(D) Administrative services costs.

(4) Availability of information submitted.—The Secretary shall establish procedures to make information on expenditures submitted under this subsection readily available to interested parties upon request, subject to such requirements as the Secretary may specify under the procedures established under this paragraph.