APPENDIX B
Beneficiary Participation Statistics

This appendix presents statistics on beneficiary participation in the TTW program, supplementing the information presented in Chapter II. Section A describes how administrative data were used to construct or define key variables. Section B presents statistics on beneficiary participation during the rollout period. Section C explores the relationship between TTW participation rates and beneficiary characteristics.

 

A. ADMINISTRATIVE DATA

The statistics in this appendix were developed from analytic administrative data files that we have developed for purposes of conducting the TTW evaluation. These files contain extensive information on 100 percent of persons who have received DI or SSI benefits in any month from January 1996 through, at the time of this report, March 2004—over 16 million beneficiaries in all. All of the statistics presented here are based on 100 percent of the relevant population; hence, they are population statistics, rather than estimates. To construct these files, MPR extracted and merged information from several SSA administrative files: the Management Information Universe File (MI Universe File), the Disability Control File, the Master Beneficiary Record (DI), the Supplemental Security Record (SSI), the Numident File, and the 831 and 832/33 Disability Files. Table B.1 details how we used various data sources to define key variables used in our analyses.

 

Table B.1. Definitions
Variable Definition Notes Source File
All Eligible Beneficiaries

Beneficiaries were classified as eligible if they:

  1. had begun participating in SSI or DI by August 2003 AND
  2. were eligible to participate in the Ticket program as of March 2004 AND
  3. had been mailed a Ticket by March 2004 (TKTMAILDDT)

March 2004

Beneficiaries became ineligible as they aged out, died, or were terminated from the Ticket program (perhaps due to a medical improvement)

Combination of MBR, SSI-LF, and MI Universe File.
Eligibility Status on Initial Selection Date

Used Ticket Selection Date (TKTSLTDDT1)

New beneficiaries: any selection date other than one of the mass selection dates Existing beneficiaries: selected to receive Ticket as part of mass selection operation (dates: 1/12/2002, 10/26/2002, or 10/18/2003)

Ticket Selection Date MI Universe File
Title

Classifications were used directly from SSA data (CURTKTTITLE).

  • DI Only: 1
  • SSI Only: 3
  • Concurrent: 2

Records with values other than 1, 2, or 3 were excluded

March 2004 MI Universe File
Sex

Classifications based on the SSA variable SEX.

  • Male = “M”
  • Female = “F”
August 2003 Combination of MBR and SSI-LF files.
Age (also used for “Age in Years – Broad Ranges”)

Calculated as of most recent Ticket mail date (TKTMAILDDT), with Date of Birth (TKTDOB).

Age = (Most Recent Ticket Mail Date – Date of Birth) / 365

Ticket Mail Date MI Universe File
Months Since Ticket Mailed The number of months between the most recent Ticket mail month (TKTMAILDDT) and March 2004. March 2004 MI Universe File
Months on Disability Rolls

For DI-only beneficiaries: the number of months between Most Recent Mail Date (TKTMAILDDT) and Date of Initial Entitlement (DOIE).

For SSI-only beneficiaries: the number of months between Most Recent Mail Date (TKTMAILDDT) and First Eligibility Date (MINELGRD).

For concurrent beneficiaries: the number of months between Most Recent Mail Date and the earlier of First Eligibility Date (from SSI-LF) or Date of Initial Entitlement (from MBR).1

March 2004 Combination of MBR, SSI-LF, and MI Universe File.
Language for Communication with SSA

Note: this item has large numbers of missing values as these data are often collected only when the beneficiary’s primary language is not English (T2LANG and T16LANG). SSA offers written communications in English or Spanish. Beneficiaries classified as “other” typically need assistance in communication, most often because of communication impairments

  • English: E or 01
  • Spanish: S or 02
  • Other: any other value
  • Missing: blank
August 2003 MBR and SSI-LF
Race/Ethnicity

Classifications are from SSA’s RACE variable:

  • Asian/Pacific Islander: A
  • Black (not Hispanic): B or N
  • Hispanic: H
  • Native American/Alaskan: I
  • White: W
  • Coded as Other: O
  • Missing: blank, missing, or any other value
August 2003 MBR and SSI-LF
Years of Education

Based on the SSA variable ED. The value is missing for a large number of cases. Recoded as:

  • 0–8: ‘00’, ‘ZZ’, ‘99’, ‘01’ thru ‘08’, ‘1’ thru ‘8’
  • 9–11: ‘09’ thru ‘11’, ‘9’ thru ‘11’
  • 12: ‘12’
  • 13–15: ‘13’ thru ‘15’
  • 16+: ‘16’ and onwards
  • Missing: blank or any other character value
Ticket Mail Date or August 2003, whichever was earlier. 831/2/3
Primary Disabling Condition

Codes from SSA data (PRMYDIAG) were grouped as follows:

  • 1. Respiratory system: 4600–5199
  • 2. Circulatory system: 3900–4599, 3750–3759
  • 3. Musculoskeletal system: 7100–7399
  • 4. Digestive system: 5200–5799
  • 5. Neoplasms: 1400–2399
  • 6. Endocrine/nutritional: 2400–2479, 2490–2799
  • 7. Skin/subcutaneous tissue: 6800–7099
  • 8. Missing: 0000–019, 1360–1369, 2480–2489, 6490–6499, 6770–6779, 6780–6789, 6790–6799, 9990–9999, or blank
  • 9. Other: 3030–3049, 3152–3153, 6300–6489, 6500–6769, 7600–7839, 7850–7999
  • 10. Other mental disorders: 2900–2949, 2970–3029, 3050–3151, 3154–3169, and 3195
  • 11. HIV/AIDS: 0420–0449
  • 12. Blood/blood-forming diseases: 2800–2899
  • 13. Mental retardation : 3170–3194, 3196–3199
  • 14. Infectious & parasitic diseases: 0020–0419, 0450–1359, 1370–1399
  • 15. Nervous system: 3200–3609, 3700–3749, 3760–3779, 3790–3889
  • 16. Major affective disorders: 2960–2969
  • 17. Genitourinary system: 5800–6299
  • 18. Injuries: 8000–9989
  • 19. Schizophrenia/psychoses/neur : 2950–2959
  • 20. Severe visual impairment: 3610–3699, 3780–3789
  • 21. Congenital anomalies: 7400–7599
  • 22. Severe hearing impairment: 3890– 3899
  • 23. Severe speech impairment: 7840–7849

March 2004 MI Universe File
Benefit Amount

Monthly benefit amounts for SSDI and SSI were summed, regardless of whether the beneficiary was classified as DI-only, SSI-only, or concurrent.

Monthly benefit amounts were obtained as follows:

  • DI: Monthly Benefit Credited (MBC)
  • SSI: the sum of Federal Money Paid Amount (FEDPMT) and State Supplementation Amount (STATPMT)

The resulting amounts were grouped as follows:

$0 (benefit amount data were entered as $0)
> $0 and <= $250
> $250 and <= $500
> $500 and <= $750
> $750 and <= $1000
> $1000
Missing (no benefit amount was entered)

Ticket Mail Date or August 2003, whichever was earlier. MBR or SSI-LF
Adjudicative Level of Allowance

Based on SSA's adjudicative level variable (AL).

  • Initial Determination: 1
  • Reconsideration: 2, 3
  • Higher level of appeal: 4, 5, 6
Ticket Mail Date or August 2003, whichever was earlier. 831/2/3
Extended Period of Eligibility

The EPE flag is an annual flag and was calculated only for DI and concurrent beneficiaries, using LAF codes and earnings data from SER, as follows:
1. Count the number of months in 2002 with LAF (payment code)= S7; call it MTHS_S7.
2. Determine monthly SGA level for beneficiary in 2002, taking into account whether the beneficiary is blind.
3. Calculate Adjusted SGA (ASGA) by multiplying SGA amount by MTHS_S7.
4. For beneficiaries with ASGA > 0, retrieve FY2002 annual earnings from SER.
5. If FY2002 annual earnings > ASGAyy, set EPE_flag to 1, else set EPE_flag to 0.

Categories in table:

  • SSI only: not applicable
  • DI and not in EPE: EPE_flag = 0
  • DI and in EPE: EPE_flag = 1
  • DI and EPE status unknown: EPE_flag not = 1 or 0
Ticket Mail Date MBR, SER
Section 1619

Section 1619 is only applicable to SSI beneficiaries. 1619(a) information is derived from STCONCATM (SSI-LF) and 1619(b) information is derived from MEDC (REMICS and SORD)

Categories in table:

  • DI only – Section 1619 not applicable
  • SSI and 1619(a): STCONCATM = 'D', 'E', 'F', 'G', 'H', 'J', 'K', 'L', 'M', 'N', 'O', 'P', 'Q', 'R', 'S’, 'W', 'X', 'Y', or 'Z'
  • SSI and 1619(b): MEDC = ‘C’
  • SSI – not in 1619: not in 1619(a) OR not in 1619(b)
  • SSI and 1619 status unknown: residual category
Ticket Mail Date or August 2003, whichever was earlier. SSI-LF, REMICS, SORD
State of Residence

Based on zip codes.

Historical zip codes were extracted from the ZIP files for DI-only beneficiaries and from the REMICS and SORD files for SSI and concurrent beneficiaries. The zip codes were transformed into state codes using a built-in SAS function.

Sometimes the zip code could not be resolved to a state.

If a state code was not available for the designated month, the code from a previous or later month was used in its place.

Ticket Mail Date or March 2004, depending on availability. ZIP files, REMICS, SORD
County Characteristics Historical zip codes were extracted from the ZIP files for DI-only beneficiaries and from the REMICS and SORD files for SSI and concurrent beneficiaries. The zip codes were transformed into state and county codes using a built-in SAS function. Sometimes the zip code could not be resolved to a state and county. If a county code was not available for the designated month, the code from a previous or later month was used in its place. Ticket Mail Date or August 2003, whichever was earlier. ZIP files, REMICS, SORD

 

B. INFORMATION ON PARTICIPATION DURING ROLLOUT

The figures in Chapter II, Section A, are based on tables in this section.

Table B.2. Ticket Mailings by Month and Phase (Supports Figure II.1)
 
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
February-02
238,511
411
416
March-02
968
1
1
April-02
367,225
1,593
1,776
May-02
615,126
3,009
3,282
June-02
746,823
4,655
5,315
July-02
151,437
884
933
August-02
151,098
1,049
1,217
September-02
155,991
556
728
October-02
154,346
556
1379
November-02
32,640
263,060
1212
December-02
19,558
2,604
241
January-03
12,216
268,013
4,584
February-03
13,053
270,586
2,560
March-03
19,352
270,322
1,972
April-03
17,068
275,568
2,239
May-03
14,381
278,908
2,564
June-03
21,065
281,161
1,848
July-03
16,431
283,430
2,124
August-03
14,030
282,498
4,639
September-03
23,477
286,494
5,406
October-03
22,329
0
1,393
November-03
38,037
66,009
339,730
December-03
17,838
19,072
3,133
January-04
21,663
23,425
350,907
February-04
21,383
23,045
350,908
March-04
22,401
24,332
358,599

Source: April 2004 extract from SSA’s MI Universe File.

 

Table B.3. Participation Rate by Months Since Rollout Start, Provider Type, Payment Type, and Phase (Supports Figures II.2, II.3, II.5)
Months Since Rollout
Month, Year
Total
Provider Type
Payment Type
SVRA
EN
Trad.
M+O
Out. Only
Phase 1 States
0 Feb-02 0.06% 0.05% 0.01% 0.04% 0.02% 0.00%
1 Mar-02 0.35 0.31 0.04 0.29 0.05 0.01
2 Apr-02 0.24 0.20 0.04 0.19 0.04 0.01
3 May-02 0.21 0.17 0.04 0.16 0.04 0.01
4 Jun-02 0.23 0.19 0.04 0.18 0.04 0.01
5 Jul-02

0.30

0.25 0.05 0.24 0.06 0.01
6 Aug-02 0.37 0.31 0.06 0.30 0.07 0.01
7 Sep-02 0.41 0.35 0.06 0.33 0.07 0.01
8 Oct-02 0.46 0.40 0.07 0.38 0.07 0.01
9 Nov-02 0.49 0.43 0.07 0.40 0.07 0.01
10 Dec-02 0.52 0.45 0.07 0.43 0.08 0.01
11 Jan-03 0.57 0.50 0.07 0.48 0.08 0.02
12 Feb-03 0.60 0.53 0.07 0.50 0.08 0.02
13 Ma-03 0.63 0.56 0.07 0.53 0.08 0.02
14 Apr-03 0.68 0.61 0.07 0.58 0.08 0.02
15 May-03 0.73 0.66 0.07 0.63 0.08 0.02
16 Jun-03 0.78 0.71 0.07 0.67 0.08 0.02
17 Jul-03 0.83 0.76 0.07 0.72 0.08 0.02
18 Aug-03 0.88 0.81 0.07 0.77 0.09 0.02
19 Sep-03 0.92 0.85 0.07 0.81 0.09 0.02
20 Oct-03 0.96 0.89 0.07 0.84 0.09 0.02
21 Nov-03 0.98 0.91 0.07 0.86 0.09 0.02
22 Dec-03 1.02 0.94 0.07 0.90 0.09 0.03
23 Jan-04 1.05 0.98 0.07 0.93 0.09 0.03
24 Feb-04 1.08 1.01 0.08 0.96 0.10 0.03
25 Mar-04 1.12 1.04 0.08 0.99 0.10 0.03
Phase 2 States
0 Nov-02 0.04% 0.03%

0.01%

0.03% 0.01% 0.00%
1 Dec-02 0.10 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.01
2 Jan-03 0.10 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.02 0.01
3 Feb-03 0.13 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.01
4 Ma-03 0.17 0.13 0.04 0.12 0.04 0.01
5 Apr-03 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.15 0.05 0.01
6 May-03 0.24 0.19 0.05 0.17 0.05 0.01
7 Jun-03 0.27 0.22 0.05 0.20 0.05 0.02
8 Jul-03 0.30 0.25 0.05 0.23 0.06 0.02
9 Aug-03 0.33 0.28 0.05 0.25 0.06 0.02
10 Sep-03 0.35 0.30 0.05 0.27 0.06 0.02
11 Oct-03 0.40 0.35 0.06 0.31 0.07 0.02
12 Nov-03 0.43 0.38 0.06 0.34 0.07 0.02
13 Dec-03 0.47 0.41 0.06 0.37 0.08 0.02
14 Jan-04 0.51 0.44 0.06 0.40 0.08 0.03
15 Feb-04 0.54 0.47 0.06 0.43 0.08 0.03
16 Mar-04 0.58 0.51 0.07 0.46 0.09 0.03
Phase 3 States
0 Nov-03 0.27% 0.25% 0.02% 0.24% 0.02% 0.00%
1 Dec-03 0.63 0.60 0.03 0.58 0.05 0.00
2 Jan-04 0.46 0.42 0.03 0.40 0.05 0.00
3 Feb-04 0.42 0.38 0.04 0.36 0.05 0.01
4 Mar-04 0.43 0.39 0.04 0.36 0.06 0.01

Source: January 2005 extract from SSA’s Disability Control File.
Note: This table was updated to adjust for lags in reporting of Ticket assignments.

 

Table B.4. First Assignments by Months Since Rollout Start, Provider Type, and Phase (Supports Figure II.4)
 
Phase I States
Phase II States
Months Since Rollout
Calendar Month
Total
Provider Type
Calendar Month
Total
Provider Type
SVRA
EN
SVRA
EN
0 Feb-02
119
95
24
Nov-02
51
38
13
1 Mar-02
660
582
78139
Dec-02
155
99
56
2 Apr-02
603
464
221
Jan-03
257
193
64
3 May-02
1062
841
325
Feb-03
449
319
130
4 Jun-02
1856
1531
341291
Ma-03
760
599
161
5 Jul-02
1795
1454
176
Apr-03
892
709
183
6 Aug-02
1979
1688
182
May-03
1023
871
152
7 Sep-02
1382
1206
140
Jun-03
1205
1033
172
8 Oct-02
1996
1814
87
Jul-03
1383
1193
190
9 Nov-02
957
817
128
Aug-03
1429
1247
182
10 Dec-02
774
687
96
Sep-03
1480
1268
212
11 Jan-03
1383
1255
128
Oct-03
1385
1231
154
12 Feb-03
790
694
96
Nov-03
992
879
113
13 Ma-03
828
770
58
Dec-03
1031
912
119
14 Apr-03
1394
1324
70
Jan-04
1011
925
86
15 May-03
1556
1484
72
Feb-04
864
800
64
16 Jun-03
1305
1240
65
Mar-04
1117
1040
77
17 Jul-03
1459
1400
59
 
18 Aug-03
1325
1260
65
19 Sep-03
1246
1192
54
20 Oct-03
1121
1053
68
21 Nov-03
806
760
46
22 Dec-03
1058
991
67
23 Jan-04
1136
1074
62
24 Feb-04
922
822
100
25 Mar-04
1074
992
82

Source: January 2005 extract from SSA’s Disability Control File.

 

C. PARTICIPATION RATES BY BENEFICIARY CHARACTERISTICS

This section presents statistics on participation rates by beneficiary characteristic, as of March 2004. All of the statistics in this section are based on SSI and DI program data matched to an April 2004 extract from the MI Universe File. These data differ from those used for the two preceding tables in this appendix, which were based on a later (January 2005) extract from SSA’s new Disability Control File, mostly because of delayed reporting of Ticket assignments.2 The more recent data show that about 10 percent of in-use Tickets in Phase 1 states in March 2004 had not been reported as assigned as of April 2004. Due to time and resource constraints, we did not update the analysis below. But we have no reason to think that the relationships reported here would be qualitatively different from those in updated data; most of the participation rates reported for specific groups would presumably be on the order of 10 percent higher, however.

Table B.5 presents state participation rates, for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 states, in total, by provider type, and by payment type. More extensive statistics for just the Phase 1 states are presented in Table B.6. For each beneficiary group (e.g., those age 40 to 44), we present six statistics: the number of eligible beneficiaries with the characteristic; the percentage of eligible beneficiaries with the characteristic; the participation (Ticket assignment) rate for those beneficiaries; the difference between their participation rates and the participation rate for the “base” group (e.g., the base group for the characteristic “age” is beneficiaries ages 18 to 24); the difference between the group’s participation rate and the base group’s participation rate after controlling for other factors (see below); and the percentage of the group’s Tickets that are assigned at SVRAs.

Raw differences in participation rates for any pair of groups reflect the potential influences of all other characteristics that are different for those two groups. For example, differences across impairment groups reflect differences between the age distributions of beneficiaries in those two groups. We used multiple regression to control for differences in other factors that are observed in the administrative data. Specifically, using the 100-percent sample, we estimated a linear probability model in which the dependent variable was the TTW participation indicator and the independent variables were categorical variables for all of the characteristics reported herein. The reported differences “after controlling for other factors” are the coefficients from this model.

 

Table B.5. Participation Rates by State, Payment System, and Provider Type, March 2004 (Supports Figure II.6)
State of Residence
(March 2004)
Payment System
Provider Type
Total
Traditional
Milestones + Outcomes
Outcomes Only
SVRA
EN
Phase 1 States
Arizona 0.45 0.28 0.15 0.03 0.28 0.17
Colorado 0.44 0.40 0.02 0.02 0.40 0.04
Delaware 2.15 1.91 0.23 0.02 2.09 0.06
Florida 0.62 0.54 0.06 0.03 0.54 0.08
Illinois 1.42 1.34 0.07 0.01 1.34 0.07
Iowa 1.00 0.97 0.07 0.02 0.92 0.08
Massachusetts 0.37 0.26 0.08 0.02 0.31 0.05
New York 1.24 1.18 0.06 0.01 1.18 0.07
Oklahoma 1.39 0.71 0.67 0.01 1.38 0.01
Oregon 0.36 0.28 0.04 0.05 0.28 0.08
South Carolina 0.94 087 0.06 0.01 0.88 0.06
Vermont 2.34 1.77 0.00 0.57 2.34 0.00
Wisconsin 1.39 1.29 0.08 0.02 1.29 0.10
Phase 2 States
Alaska 0.49 0.44 0.03 0.02 0.44 0.05
Arkansas 0.14 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.07 0.07
Connecticut 0.58 0.33 0.03 0.22 0.54 0.03
District of Columbia 0.49 0.28 0.18 0.04 0.32 0.16
Georgia 0.39 0.32 0.06 0.01 0.32 0.07
Indiana 0.21 0.12 0.08 0.01 0.17 0.03
Kansas 0.46 0.36 0.07 0.03 0.36 0.10
Kentucky 0.15 0.13 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.02
Louisiana 0.67 0.44 0.21 0.01 0.64 0.03
Michigan 0.91 0.86 0.04 0.01 0.86 0.04
Mississippi 0.26 0.16 0.09 0.01 0.16 0.10
Missouri 0.29 0.21 0.07 0.02 0.22 0.07
Montana 0.55 0.54 0.01 0.00 0.55 0.00
Nevada 0.64 0.44 0.17 0.03 0.44 0.20
New Hampshire 0.10 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.04
New Jersey 0.23 0.16 0.03 0.05 0.19 0.04
New Mexico 0.12 0.09 0.01 0.02 0.09 0.02
North Dakota 0.18 0.12 0.04 0.02 0.13 0.05
South Dakota 1.63 1.56 0.01 0.06 1.63 0.00
Tennessee 0.55 0.41 0.13 0.01 0.41 0.14
Virginia 0.37 0.29 0.07 0.02 0.29 0.08

Source: Participation status based on an April 2004 extract from the MI Universe File, which does not reflect the approximately 10 percent of March 2004 assignments that were reported later. See Table B.1 for other sources.

 

 

Table B.6. Participation Rates by Characteristic in Phase 1 States, March 2004a
Group Definition
Number
(in Thousands)
Percent of Eligible Beneficiaries
Participation Rate (in %)
Difference from Rate for Base Category
Percent in Traditional Payment System
Unadjusted
Adjusted
All Eligible Beneficiaries 2,564 100.0% 1.0% c c 87.9%
 
Eligibility Status on Initial Selection Date
New Beneficiaries (became eligible later) 435 17.0 0.87 -0.19 -0.08 85.0
Existing Beneficiaries (eligible) 2,129 83.0 1.05 b b 88.4
 
Title
Dl only 1,451 56.6 0.93 -0.05 0.27 87.1
SSI only 779 30.4 0.98 b b 88.4
Concurrent 334 13.0 1.53 0.55 0.23 89.4
 
Sex
Male 1,288 50.2 1.05 0.05 0.02 88.2
Female 1,276 49.8 1.00 b b 87.7
 
Age
18-24 150 5.9 2.79 b b 92.1
25-29 116 4.5 2.12 -0.67 -0.79 88.4
30-34 156 6.1 1.81 -0.98 -1.11 88.0
35-39 231 9.0 1.63 -1.16 -1.33 88.3
40-44 318 12.4 1.37 -1.42 -1.57 87.5
45-49 364 14.2 1.06 -1.73 -1.89 87.7
50-54 417 16.3 0.64 -2.15 -2.28 85.3
55-59 488 19.0 0.33 -2.46 -2.56 84.4
60-64 325 12.7 0.16 -2.63 -2.73 78.9
 
Age in Years - Broad Ranges
<40 653 25.5 2.03 c c 89.4
40-49 681 26.6 1.21 c c 87.6
50-64 1,230 48.0 0.39 c c 84.3
 
Months Since Ticket Mailed (M)
0-3 24 0.9 0.21 b b 80.4
4-6 64 2.5 0.30 0.09 0.17 80.2
7-9 49 1.9 0.51 0.30 0.35 86.5
10-12 48 1.9 0.70 0.49 0.54 86.3
13-15 42 1.6 0.90 0.69 0.77 83.9
16-18 311 12.1 1.14 0.93 0.94 93.1
19-24 1,815 70.8 1.03 0.82 1.12 87.4
24+ 211 8.2 1.33 1.11 1.36 86.7
 
Months on Disability Rolls
0-6 117 4.6 0.77 b b 86.5
7-12 88 3.4 1.00 0.22 0.03 83.8
13-18 84 3.3 0.98 0.20 0.03 83.7
19-24 81 3.2 1.04 0.27 0.03 87.7
DI and 0 - 24 months - - - - -0.05 -
25-30 76 3.0 1.04 0.27 0.20 86.7
31 -36 76 3.0 1.01 0.24 0.20 88.0
37-48 161 6.3 1.08 0.30 0.20 86.6
49-60 135 5.3 1.09 0.32 0.20 87.1
61 - 120 655 25.5 1.06 0.28 0.20 87.4
120+ 1,057 41.2 1.03 0.26 0.20 89.4
Missing 26 1.0 0.59 -0.18 -0.14 89.6
Negative Months 7 0.3 0.91 0.14 -0.02 93.8
 
Language for Communication with SSA
English 1,389 54.2 1.14 b b 87.2
Spanish 110 4.3 0.35 -0.78 -0.31 88.4
Other 13 0.5 0.55 -0.58 -0.11 94.4
Missing 1,052 41.0 0.95 -0.19 -0.17 89.0
 
Race/Ethnicity
Asian/Pacific Islander 22 0.9 1.04 0.04 0.16 90.0
Black (not Hispanic) 511 19.9 1.26 0.26 0.19 87.3
Hispanic 134 5.2 0.71 -0.29 -0.09 90.2
Native American/Alaskan 14 0.5 0.90 -0.10 0.03 65.1
White 1,678 65.4 1.00 b b 88.3
Coded as Other 24 0.9 0.70 -0.30 -0.01 87.0
Missing 182 7.1 0.82 -0.19 -0.16 87.4
 
Years of Education
0-8 165 6.4 0.35 b b 89.0
9-11 230 9.0 0.83 0.48 0.03 85.3
12 416 16.2 1.14 0.79 0.42 88.4
13-15 115 4.5 1.59 1.24 0.85 84.9
16+ 65 2.5 1.41 1.06 0.87 85.5
Missing 1,575 61.4 1.03 0.68 0.31 88.3
 
Primary Disabling Condition
Respiratory system 64 2.5 0.36 -0.88 0.19 82.0
Circulatory system 177 6.9 0.45 -0.79 0.27 85.8
Musculoskeletal system 420 16.4 0.51 -0.73 0.27 84.2
Digestive system 27 1.1 0.64 -0.60 0.21 79.7
Neoplasms 43 1.7 0.65 -0.58 0.10 80.4
Endocrine/nutritional 91 3.5 0.68 -0.55 0.28 86.1
Skin/subcutaneous tissue 5 0.2 0.72 -0.51 0.26 94.4
Missing 291 11.3 0.83 -0.41 0.21 88.1
Other 22 0.9 0.87 -0.36 0.45 89.1
Other mental disorders 200 7.8 1.04 -0.19 0.36 86.1
HIV/AIDS 41 1.6 1.17 -0.07 0.26 86.6
Blood/blood-forming diseases 7 0.3 1.17 -0.06 -0.03 89.0
Mental retardation 297 11.6 1.23 b b 90.6
Infectious & parasitic diseases 14 0.5 1.24 0.01 0.70 90.8
Nervous system 147 5.7 1.26 0.03 0.51 90.7
Major affective disorders 319 12.4 1.29 0.05 0.69 86.3
Genitourinary system 31 1.2 1.35 0.12 0.57 90.5
Injuries 87 3.4 1.37 0.13 0.80 90.7
Schizophrenia/psychoses/neur. 196 7.6 1.46 0.22 0.67 85.7
Severe visual impairment 51 2.0 1.73 0.50 0.95 89.5
Congenital anomalies 9 0.4 1.96 0.72 0.56 93.2
Severe speech impairment 2 0.1 2.30 1.07 1.55 93.5
Severe hearing impairment 23 0.9 5.92 4.68 4.74 95.7
 
Benefit Amount
Zero benefit 56 2.2 0.52 b
($0 to $250)
b
($0 to $250)
93.8
$0 to $250 70 2.7 0.78 b
($0 to $250)
b
($0 to $250)
91.6
$250 to $500 256 10.0 1.29 0.62 -0.09 93.0
$500 to $750 1,211 47.2 1.13 0.17 0.21 92.7
$750 to $1,000 438 17.1 1.09 0.05 0.12 92.5
>=$1,000 533 20.8 0.69 -0.37 -0.15 90.6
Missing 0 0.0 0.00 -1.02 -0.41 0.0
 
Adjudicative Level of Allowance
Initial Determination 1,716 66.9 1.18 - - 88.1
Reconsideration 173 6.7 1.00 -0.18 -0.03 86.7
Higher level of appeal 665 25.9 0.70 -0.48 -0.25 84.8
 
Extended Period of Eligibility
DI only - Section 1619 not applicable 1,451 56.6 0.93 c c 87.1
SSI - not in 1619 1,087 42.4 1.12 b b 88.7
SSI and 1619(a) 10 0.4 2.38 1.26 0.80 89.9
SSI and 1619(b) 7 0.3 3.06 1.94 1.05 90.7
SSI and 1619 status unknown 8 0.3 1.51 0.39 0.33 88.4
 
State of Residence
Arizona 128 5.0 0.45 -0.55 -0.37 61.4
Colorado 79 3.1 0.44 -0.56 -0.48 90.8
Delaware 20 0.8 2.15 1.15 1.03 88.8
Florida 421 16.4 0.62 -0.38 -0.35 86.2
Illinois 300 11.7 1.42 0.41 0.63 94.2
Iowa 64 2.5 1.00 c c 90.7
Massachusetts 190 7.4 0.37 -0.64 -0.60 72.0
New York 585 22.8 1.24 0.24 0.61 94.6
Oklahoma 101 3.9 1.39 0.39 0.37 51.1
Oregon 84 3.3 0.36 -0.64 -0.49 76.9
Other 319 12.4 1.36 0.36 0.32 87.6
South Carolina 136 5.3 0.94 -0.06 0.03 92.6
Vermont 17 0.7 2.34 1.34 1.22 75.6
Wisconsin 120 4.7 1.39 0.39 0.57 92.9
 
County Characteristics
Population density, 2000 (# per square mile)
Below 20 79 3.1 0.64 b b 78.6
20-120 499 19.5 1.11 0.47 0.08 87.1
Above 1 20 1,955 76.2 1.03 0.39 0.10 88.4
Population loss, 1990 - 2000
No 2,320 90.5 1.00 b b 87.2
Yes - metro 138 5.4 1.40 0.41 -0.25 93.8
Yes - nonmetro 74 2.9 1.47 0.48 0.22 93.9
Percent black, 2000
Below 1% 321 12.5 1.08 b b 89.0
1% - 10% 983 38.3 0.95 -0.12 -0.06 87.1
Above 10% 1,229 47.9 1.08 0.01 0.02 88.3
Percent Hispanic/Latino
Below 1% 107 4.2 1.26 b b 89.5
1% - 10% 1,365 53.2 1.15 -0.11 0.35 88.5
Above 10% 1,061 41.4 0.86 -0.39 0.34 86.8
Percent living in poverty, 2000
Below 10% 874 34.1 1.06 b b 89.8
10-15% 1,165 45.4 1.09 0.03 0.08 87.4
Above 15% 495 19.3 0.86 -0.20 0.11 85.5
Unemployment rate, 2003
Below 4.0% 189 7.4 1.40 b b 88.2
4.0 - 8.0% 1,940 75.7 1.02 -0.38 -0.18 87.4
Above 8.0% 404 15.8 0.92 -0.47 -0.35 90.8
Low employment, 2000
No 2,230 87.0 1.06 b b 87.9
Yes - metro 238 9.3 0.95 -0.11 0.41 89.2
Yes - nonmetro 64 2.5 0.52 -0.53 -0.16 86.0
Urbanicity index, 2000
Urban 2,106 82.1 1.01 b b 87.9
Suburban 345 13.5 1.14 0.14 0.04 90.3
Mostly rural 81 3.2 1.24 0.23 0.08 81.1
Percent of workers using public transit, 2000
Below 15% 2,002 78.1 1.02 b b 87.1
1 5% and Above 531 20.7 1.08 0.06 -0.45 91.0
Housing stress, 2000
No 1,264 49.3 1.15 b b 88.0
Yes - metro 1,186 46.3 0.93 -0.22 -0.07 87.8
Yes - nonmetro 82 3.2 0.67 -0.48 0.03 88.9
Low education, 2000
No 2,232 87.1 1.05 b b 87.8
Yes - metro 243 9.5 0.93 -0.12 -0.23 89.3
Yes - nonmetro 57 2.2 0.61 -0.44 -0.16 92.8
County Data Available
County known 2,533 98.8 1.03 b b -
County unknown 31 1.2 0.26 -0.77 0.06 82.7

Source: Participation status based on an April 2004 extract of from the MI Universe File, which does not reflect the approximately 10 percent of March 2004 assignments that were reported later. See Table B.1 for other sources.
aThis table was not updated to adjust for lags in reporting of Ticket assignments.
bBase used in calculating differences.
cVariable not included in participation model.


1 “Months on the disability rolls” is a negative value in a few instances. This occurs if the benefit eligibility date is after the most recent Ticket mail date. For instance, a DI-only beneficiary receives a Ticket, and then becomes ineligible for DI. The beneficiary had become eligible for SSI later than DI and MINELGRD is filled in with a date that is more recent than the Ticket mail date, and it looks as though the beneficiary was on the rolls for a negative number of months. Return to Text.

2 The more recent data also incorporate minor changes in (1) the definition of a beneficiary’s state for purposes of assigning Phase, and (2) the classification of beneficiaries by program (i.e., Title). Return to Text.