Research and Program Descriptions About France

International Update, January 2014
(released January 2014)
International Update, August 2012
(released August 2012)
International Update, February 2012
(released February 2012)
Caregiver Credits in France, Germany, and Sweden: Lessons for the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)

Analysts have long considered caregiver credits, or pension credits, provided to individuals for time spent out of the workforce caring for dependent children and sick or elderly relatives, as a way to improve the adequacy of retirement benefits for women in the United States. This article examines the experiences of France, Germany, and Sweden with caregiver credits, focusing particularly on the design, administration, and cost of these programs.

International Update, December 2010
(released December 2010)
U.S. Social Security at 75 Years: An International Perspective
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 3 (released August 2010)

Among the social security systems of industrialized countries, has the U.S. Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program followed a unique historical path? This article finds that the historical development of the U.S. Social Security system follows closely in many respects the model provided by older social insurance systems, particularly that of Germany. However, certain aspects of the U.S. Social Security experience stand out as exceptional from an international perspective, including the persistent rejection of general revenue financing, the significance attributed to long-range (75-year) projections, and the relative generosity of dependents' benefits.

International Update, October 2009
(released October 2009)
International Update, January 2009
(released January 2009)
International Update, February 2008
(released February 2008)
International Update, December 2006
(released December 2006)
International Update, October 2006
(released October 2006)
International Update, November 2004
(released November 2004)
International Update, January 2004
(released January 2004)
International Update, October 2003
(released October 2003)
Poverty Among Single Elderly Women Under Different Systems of Old-Age Security: A Comparative Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)

This study takes stock of available comparative research on the economic status of elderly single women in six industrialized countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. A systematic comparison of income has become easier due to such standardized data bases as the Luxembourg Income Study.

But an explanation for different poverty rates among older women who are on their own requires a further, differentiated assessment of the countries' retirement benefit structures. This article attempts such a review. It makes use of a variety of single-country sources and takes into account the institutional heterogeneity of old-age security systems. The study concludes with a view of the effectiveness of different old-age security systems in preventing poverty among older single women.

Social Insurance Provisions for Children With Disabilities in Selected Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)

In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices.

In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information of in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

Recent European Trends in Disability and Related Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)

Forging Linkages—Modifying Disability Benefit Programs to Encourage Employment
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 10 (released October 1990)

National Expenditures on Social Security and Health in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1985–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 2 (released February 1989)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)

International Social Security Agreements: The U.S. Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)

Health Care Expenditures: International Comparisons, 1970–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1983–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 9 (released September 1986)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1981–83
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 6 (released June 1984)

Social Security Problems in Western European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 2 (released February 1984)

Social Security Trends and Developments in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)

International Trends in Disability Program Growth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)

Worldwide Trends in Social Security, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)

European Attitudes Toward Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 6 (released June 1980)

Health Care Expenditures in Nine Industrialized Countries, 1960–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)

Recent Changes in French Family Allowance Policy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 12 (released December 1979)

Social Security: A Worldwide Issue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)

Mandatory Employment of the Handicapped
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 2 (released February 1979)

Social Security and Job-Creation Measures: Recent French Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 9 (released September 1978)

Flexible Retirement Features Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1975–77
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Earnings-Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits, 1965–75, Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 1 (released January 1978)

Alimony and Public Income Support: Fifteen Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)

France Gradually Lowers Retirement Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 12 (released December 1976)

Maintaining Value of Social Security Benefits During Inflation: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 11 (released November 1976)

Housewives and Pensions Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 9 (released September 1976)

Impact of Recession on Financing of French Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)

Social Security Funding Practices in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 5 (released May 1976)

World Developments and Trends in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 4 (released April 1976)

Foreign Health Programs: Changes in Population Covered
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 1 (released January 1976)

Payroll Taxes Under Social Security Programs: Cross-National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)

Health Insurance for the Unemployed Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 9 (released September 1975)

Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Pensions for Workers Retiring at End of 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)

Supplemental Security Income for the Aged: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 12 (released December 1973)

The European Experience in Social Health Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)

Medical Care Expenditures in Seven Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)

Medical Care Agreement With French Doctors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 7 (released July 1972)

Higher Old-Age Pensions in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)

Children's Allowances: Their Size and Structure in Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)

Social Security Provisions for Young Adults in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)

Retirement Benefits for Very Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 4 (released April 1971)

Role of the Contribution Ceiling in Social Security Programs: Comparison of Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 2 (released February 1971)

Recent Social Security Reforms in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 1 (released January 1971)

International Health Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 12 (released December 1970)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1967–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)

Adjustment of Old-Age Pensions in Foreign Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)

Higher Family Allowances in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)

Further Social Security Amendments in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 1 (released January 1969)

Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 5 (released May 1968)

Income-Tax Treatment of Old-Age Pensions and Contributions Here and Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)

Relation of Social Security Expenditures to Gross National Product in 45 Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)

Social Security Programs of Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)

Medical Benefits for Old-Age Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)

A Quarter Century of Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)

Automatic Cost-of-Living Adjustment of Pensions in Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)

Medical Benefits For Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)

European Multilateral Social Security Treaties
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 2 (released February 1959)

Foreign Social Security Programs in 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1955 to 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1935–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)

Social Security Agreements in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 4 (released April 1950)

World Developments in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)

Coverage of the Self-Employed Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)

Foreign Experience in Social Insurance Contributions for Agricultural and Domestic Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2 (released February 1945)

Medical Services Under Health Insurance Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 12 (released December 1940)

Social Insurance for Special Groups in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 10 (released October 1939)

The Use of a Stamp System for Social Insurance in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 6 (released June 1939)

Old-Age Insurance for Agricultural Workers in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)