Research and Program Descriptions About Japan

International Update, September 2011
(released September 2011)
Permanent Disability Social Insurance Programs in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 1 (released February 2010)

This article examines the experience of Japan's social insurance permanent disability programs and compares its key features with the Social Security Disability Insurance program operating in the United States. It analyzes the determination and appeals processes in Japan for claiming permanent social insurance disability pensions. Trends in the number of Japanese disability program beneficiaries and benefit expenditures are also discussed.

International Update, November 2009
(released November 2009)
International Update, December 2008
(released December 2008)
The Evolution of Japanese Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 3 (released April 2008)

This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Before 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One DB plan type was based on an earlier occupational pension model used in the United States. The other DB plan type allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security. Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees, creating three new DB plan designs and two new defined contribution types of plans. Since that time, the mix of employer-sponsored retirement plans offered in Japan has changed significantly, and overall employee coverage has declined. On balance, employer-sponsored retirement plans have remained largely DB in design.

International Update, August 2007
(released August 2007)
International Update, February 2005
(released February 2005)
International Update, November 2003
(released November 2003)
International Update, October 2003
(released October 2003)
Social Insurance Provisions for Children With Disabilities in Selected Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)

In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices.

In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information of in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

Investment of Social Security Reserves in Three Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 2 (released February 1990)

National Expenditures on Social Security and Health in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1985–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 2 (released February 1989)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)

Social Security Reforms in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 8 (released August 1987)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1983–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 9 (released September 1986)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1981–83
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 6 (released June 1984)

Social Security Trends and Developments in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)

Worldwide Trends in Social Security, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)

Social Security: A Worldwide Issue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)

Recent Social Security Developments in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 10 (released October 1978)

Flexible Retirement Features Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)

World Developments and Trends in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 4 (released April 1976)

Foreign Health Programs: Changes in Population Covered
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 1 (released January 1976)

Payroll Taxes Under Social Security Programs: Cross-National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)

Standardization of Short-term Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 4 (released April 1975)

The Retirement Test: An International Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 7 (released July 1974)

Major Social Security Issues: Japan, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)

Children's Allowances in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 6 (released June 1972)

Social Security Provisions for Young Adults in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)

Special Retirement Programs for Farmers: New Japanese Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 10 (released October 1971)

Extension of Workmen's Accident Insurance in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)

Income-Tax Treatment of Old-Age Pensions and Contributions Here and Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)

Relation of Social Security Expenditures to Gross National Product in 45 Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)

Technical Cooperation Activities of the Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)

Social Security Programs of Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)

Medical Benefits for Old-Age Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)

A Quarter Century of Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)

Medical Benefits For Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)

Foreign Social Security Programs in 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1955 to 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1935–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)

World Developments in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)