Fast Facts & Figures About Social Security, 2010

 

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Abbreviations

AIME
average indexed monthly earnings
DI
Disability Insurance
FICA
Federal Insurance Contributions Act
FRA
full retirement age
HI
Hospital Insurance
OASDI
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
OASI
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
PIA
primary insurance amount
SECA
Self-Employment Contributions Act
SSA
Social Security Administration
SSI
Supplemental Security Income

General Information, 2010

Cost-of-living adjustment

Cost-of-living adjustment, 2010: 0.0.%

Tax rates

Tax rates, 2010 (in percent)
Program Employer and
employee, each
Self-employed
Total 7.65 15.30
OASI 5.30 10.60
DI 0.90 1.80
HI 1.45 2.90
 

Average wage index

Average wage index, 2008–2010
Year Dollars Increase from
previous year
(in percent)
2008 41,334.97 2.3
2009 (estimated) 41,067.93 -0.6
2010 (estimated) 43,083.76 4.9
 

Maximum earnings subject to Social Security taxes

Maximum earnings subject to Social Security taxes, 2010 (in dollars)
Program Amount
OASDI 106,800
HI No limit
 

Taxes payable

Taxes payable, 2010 (in dollars)
Type of earner Total OASI DI HI
Average earner 3,296 2,283 388 625
Maximum earner 6,622 5,660 961 No limit
Self-employed maximum earner 13,243 11,321 1,922 No limit
NOTE: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

Work credits

Work credits (quarters of coverage), 2010:
  • $1,120 in earnings equals 1 credit
  • $4,480 in earnings qualifies for the maximum of 4 credits

Exempt amounts under the retirement earnings test

Exempt amounts under the retirement earnings test, 2010 (in dollars)
Period Annually Monthly
Age of retired person in 2010
Under full retirement age ($1 for $2 withholding rate) 14,160 1,180
Full retirement age ($1 for $3 withholding rate) a 37,680 3,140
Above full retirement age No limit No limit
a. The test applies only to earnings made in months prior to the month of attainment of full retirement age.

Age for full retirement benefit for retired workers

Age for full retirement benefit for retired workers
Year of birth Full retirement age
1937 and earlier 65
1938 65 and 2 months
1939 65 and 4 months
1940 65 and 6 months
1941 65 and 8 months
1942 65 and 10 months
1943–1954 66
1955 66 and 2 months
1956 66 and 4 months
1957 66 and 6 months
1958 66 and 8 months
1959 66 and 10 months
1960 and later 67
 

Benefit formula bend points

Benefit formula bend points (for workers with first eligibility in 2010)

Primary insurance amount (PIA) equals

  • 90% of the first $761 of AIME, plus
  • 32% of AIME over $761 through $4,586 plus
  • 15% of AIME over $4,586

Disability thresholds

Disability thresholds

Substantial gainful activity

  • $1,000 per month for nonblind persons
  • $1,640 per month for blind persons

Trial work period

  • $720 per month

Maximum Social Security benefit

$2,346 per month for workers retiring at full retirement age in 2010
Higher benefits are possible for those who work or delay benefit receipt after reaching full retirement age

Trust fund operations

Trust fund operations, 2009–2010 (in billions of dollars)
Calendar year and trust fund Income Outgo Fund
at end
of year
2009 (actual)
Total 807.5 685.8 2,540.3
OASI 698.2 564.3 2,336.8
DI 109.3 121.5 203.6
2010 (estimated)
Total 791.3 714.6 2,617.0
OASI 686.1 586.2 2,436.7
DI 105.2 128.4 180.3
NOTE: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

OASDI administrative expenses

OASDI administrative expenses: Costs were 0.9% of contributions in calendar year 2009

Benefit payments

Benefit payments as a percentage of gross domestic product, 2008–2009
Calendar year Total OASI DI
2008 4.26 3.53 0.74
2009 4.74 3.91 0.83
NOTES: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.
Figures are subject to change.

Workload

Workload, fiscal year 2009 (in millions)
Type of filing Number
OASI claims 4.7
DI claims 3.1
SSI applications 2.9
 

Supplemental Security Income

Supplemental Security Income, January 2010

Federal benefit rate

  • $674 individual
  • $1,011 couple

Resource limits

  • $2,000 individual
  • $3,000 couple

Poverty thresholds

Poverty thresholds, 2009 (in dollars)
Family unit Amount
Aged individual 10,289
Family of two, aged head 12,984
Family of four 21,947
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau as of February 2010 (preliminary estimates).

Income of the Aged Population

Size of Income, 1962 and 2008

Median annual income for married couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older has increased markedly since 1962 (the earliest year for which data are available). Even after adjusting for inflation, median income has risen 110% for married couples and 108% for nonmarried persons. A married couple is aged 65 or older if the husband is aged 65 or older or if the husband is aged 54 or younger and the wife is 65 or older.

Median income of aged units, by marital status (in 2008 dollars)
Bar chart. Median income has risen for married couples from $20,497 in 1962 to $43,087 in 2008. Likewise, it has risen for nonmarried persons from $8,056 in 1962 to $16,757 in 2008.
SOURCES: Data for 1962 are from Social Security Administration, The Aged Population of the United States: The 1963 Social Security Survey of the Aged (1967). Data for 2008 are Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.
NOTE: An aged unit is a married couple living together or a nonmarried person, which also includes persons who are separated or married but not living together.

Receipt of Income, 1962 and 2008

Social Security benefits—the most common source of income for married couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older in 1962—are now almost universal. The proportion of the aged population with asset income—the next most common source—is similar to that in 1962. Over the 46-year period, receipt of private pensions has more than tripled, and receipt of government pensions has increased by approximately 50%. The proportion of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older who had earnings was smaller in 2008 than in 1962.

Percentage of aged units receiving income, by source
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCES: Data for 1962 are from Social Security Administration, The Aged Population of the United States: The 1963 Social Security Survey of the Aged (1967). Data for 2008 are Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.
NOTE: An aged unit is a married couple living together or a nonmarried person, which also includes persons who are separated or married but not living together.

Shares of Aggregate Income, 1962 and 2008

In 1962, Social Security, private and government employee pensions, income from assets, and earnings made up only 84% of the aggregate total income of couples and nonmarried persons aged 65 or older, compared with 97% in 2008. The shares from Social Security, private pensions, and government employee pensions have increased since 1962. The shares from earnings and asset income are about the same in 2008 as they were in 1962.

Aggregate income, by source
Two pie charts linked to data in table format.
SOURCES: Data for 1962 are from Social Security Administration, The Aged Population of the United States: The 1963 Social Security Survey of the Aged (1967). Data for 2008 are Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.
NOTES: The unit of analysis is the aged unit, defined as a married couple living together or a nonmarried person, which also includes persons who are separated or married but not living together.
Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

Relative Importance of Social Security, 2008

In 2008, 88% of married couples and 86% of nonmarried persons aged 65 or older received Social Security benefits. Social Security was the major source of income (providing at least 50% of total income) for 52% of aged beneficiary couples and 73% of aged nonmarried beneficiaries. It was 90% or more of income for 21% of aged beneficiary couples and 43% of aged nonmarried beneficiaries. Total income excludes withdrawals from savings and nonannuitized IRAs or 401(k) plans; it also excludes in-kind support, such as food stamps and housing and energy assistance.

Percentage of aged units receiving Social Security benefits, by relative importance of benefits to total income
Bar chart described in the text. In addition, Social Security provided at least 50% of total income for 64% of all beneficiary units. It was 90% or more of income for 34% of all beneficiary units.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.
NOTE: An aged unit is a married couple living together or a nonmarried person, which also includes persons who are separated or married but not living together.

Poverty Status Based on Family Income, 2008

The aged poor are those with income below the poverty line. The near poor have income greater than or equal to the poverty line and less than 125% of the poverty line. Nonmarried women and minorities have the highest poverty rates, ranging from 16.9% to 20.0%. Married persons have the lowest poverty rates, with 4.9% poor and 2.9% near poor. Overall, 9.7% are poor and 6.2% are near poor.

Poverty status, by marital status, sex of nonmarried persons, race, and Hispanic origin
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration calculations from the March 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey.
a. Current Population Survey respondents may identify themselves in more than one racial group. The "white alone" and "black alone" categories reflect respondents who reported only one race.

OASDI Program

Earnings in Covered Employment, 1937–2009

People contribute to Social Security through payroll taxes or self-employment taxes, as required by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and the Self-Employment Contributions Act (SECA). The maximum taxable amount is updated annually on the basis of increases in the average wage. Of the 156 million workers with earnings in Social Security–covered employment in 2009, 5% had earnings that equaled or exceeded the maximum amount subject to taxes, compared with 3% when the program began and a peak of 36% in 1965. About 85% of earnings in covered employment were taxable in 2009, compared with 92% in 1937.

Taxable earnings as a percentage of earnings in covered employment and percentage of workers with maximum taxable earnings, selected years
Line chart. In 1937, 92% of earnings were in covered employment. That percentage fell gradually, reaching a low of 71.3% in 1965. It then rose steadily, peaking at 88.9% in 1985, then fell back slowly to about 85% in 2009. The percentage of workers with maximum earnings shows an inverse pattern. Only 3.1% of workers had maximum earnings in 1937, rising steadily and reaching a high of 36.1% in 1965. The percentage fell to 15% in 1975, then to 6.5% in 1985, and to 5% in 2009.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Office of the Chief Actuary.

Insured Status, 1970–2009

The percentage of persons aged 20 or older who are insured for benefits has remained the same for the past several years. To be fully insured, a worker must have at least one work credit (quarter of coverage) for each year elapsed after age 21 (but no earlier than 1950) and before the year in which he or she attains age 62, becomes disabled, or dies. The maximum number of work credits needed to be fully insured is 40. An individual is said to be permanently insured if he or she has earned 40 work credits. To be insured for disability, the worker must be fully insured and have at least 20 work credits during the last 40 calendar quarters. (Requirements for disability-insured status are somewhat different for persons younger than age 31.) Disability benefits are available up to full retirement age (FRA).

Insured workers as a percentage of the corresponding Social Security area population, selected years
Year Population aged 20 or older Population aged 20–64a
Millions Percentage
permanently
insured
Percentage
fully
insured
Millions Percentage
insured for
disability
1970 135.2 50 77 113.2 62
1975 147.5 50 80 122.9 65
1980 162.0 53 83 133.3 70
1985 175.1 57 84 144.1 73
1990 186.0 63 86 151.9 76
1995 194.7 66 87 160.5 78
2000 204.7 69 88 169.2 79
2005 219.7 69 88 182.2 79
2006 221.0 69 88 183.1 78
2007 223.5 70 88 184.9 78
2008 226.2 70 88 186.6 78
2009 228.8 70 88 188.5 78
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Office of the Chief Actuary.
NOTES: The population in the Social Security area includes residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia adjusted for net census undercount; civilian residents of American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands; federal civilian employees and persons in the armed forces abroad and their dependents; crew members of merchant vessels; and all other U.S. citizens abroad.
Figures are subject to revision.
a. Insured for disability excludes those over full retirement age.

Insured Status, by Sex, 1970 and 2009

Although men are more likely than women to be insured, the gender gap is shrinking. The proportion of men who are insured has remained essentially stable, with 91% fully insured and 81% insured for disability. a By contrast, the proportion of women who are insured has increased dramatically—from 63% to 85% fully insured and from 41% to 74% insured for disability.

Percentage of population in the Social Security area fully insured and insured for disability benefits, by sex
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Office of the Chief Actuary.
NOTES: The population in the Social Security area includes residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia adjusted for net census undercount; civilian residents of American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands; federal civilian employees and persons in the armed forces abroad and their dependents; crew members of merchant vessels; and all other U.S. citizens abroad.
Figures are subject to revision.
a. Insured for disability excludes those over full retirement age.

New Benefit Awards, 2009

Benefits were awarded to about 5.7 million persons; of those, 48% were retired workers and 17% were disabled workers. The remaining 35% were survivors or the spouses and children of retired or disabled workers. These awards represent not only new entrants to the benefit rolls but also persons already on the rolls who become entitled to a different benefit, particularly conversions of disabled-worker benefits to retired-worker benefits at full retirement age.

New awards, by type of beneficiary
Beneficiary Number
(thousands)
Percent
Total 5,729 100
Retired workers and dependents 3,272 57
Workers 2,740 48
Spouses and children 532 9
Disabled workers and dependents 1,557 27
Workers 971 17
Spouses and children 586 10
Survivors of deceased workers 900 16
 
New awards, 2009
Pie chart described in the text.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.
NOTE: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

New Awards to Workers, 1969–2009

Awards to retired workers have increased considerably over the past four decades, but proportionately much less than awards to disabled workers. The annualized rate of increase over the period from 1969 to 2009 is 1.9% for retired workers and 2.6% for disabled workers. The annual number of awards to retired workers rose from 1.3 million in 1969 to 2.7 million in 2009, while for disabled workers it increased from 345,000 in 1969 to 971,000 in 2009.

New awards to retired and disabled workers
Line chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.

Beneficiaries in Current-Payment Status, December 2009

More than 52.5 million beneficiaries were in current-payment status, that is, they were being paid a benefit. Sixty-four percent of those beneficiaries were retired workers and 15% were disabled workers. The remaining 21% were survivors or the spouses and children of retired or disabled workers.

Beneficiaries in current-payment status
Beneficiary Number
(thousands)
Percent
Total 52,523 100
Retired workers and dependents 36,419 69
Workers 33,514 64
Spouses and children 2,905 6
Disabled workers and dependents 9,694 18
Workers 7,788 15
Spouses and children 1,906 4
Survivors of deceased workers 6,410 12
 
Beneficiaries, by type
Pie chart illustrating the Percent data from the previous table. In addition, showing that about 9% of beneficiaries in current-payment status were spouses and children of retired or disabled workers.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.
NOTE: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

Average Benefit Amounts, 2009

Benefits payable to workers who retire at the full retirement age and to disabled workers are equal to 100% of the PIA (subject to any applicable deductions). At the full retirement age, widow(er)s' benefits are also payable at 100% of the insured worker's PIA. Nondisabled widow(er)s can receive reduced benefits at age 60. Disabled widow(er)s can receive reduced benefits at age 50. Spouses, children, and parents receive a smaller proportion of the worker's PIA than do widow(er)s.

Average monthly benefit for new awards and for benefits in current-payment status (in dollars)
Beneficiary New awards Benefits in
current-payment
status, December
All beneficiaries 960 1,064
Retired workers 1,182 1,164
Spouses 422 574
Children 542 570
Disabled workers 1,120 1,064
Spouses 293 287
Children 292 318
Survivors of deceased workers
Nondisabled widow(er)s 916 1,124
Disabled widow(er)s 666 683
Widowed mothers and fathers 814 842
Surviving children 746 747
Parents 868 988
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.

Beneficiaries, by Age, December 2009

About four-fifths of all OASDI beneficiaries in current-payment status were aged 62 or older, including 23 percent aged 75–84 and 10 percent aged 85 or older. About 15 percent were persons aged 18–61 receiving benefits as disabled workers, survivors, or dependents. Another 6 percent were children under age 18.

Beneficiaries, by age
Pie chart described in the text. In addition, 37% of all OASDI beneficiaries in current-payment status were aged 65-74 and 9% were aged 62-64.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.

Disabled and Retired Workers, by Age, 1960–2009

The average age of disabled-worker beneficiaries in current-payment status has declined substantially since 1960, when DI benefits first became available to persons younger than age 50. In that year, the average age of a disabled worker was 57.2 years. The rapid drop in average age in the following years reflects a growing number of awards to workers under 50. By 1995, the average age had fallen to a low of 49.8, and by 2009, it had risen to 52.7. In contrast, the average age of retired workers has changed little over time, rising from 72.4 in 1960 to 73.8 in 2009.

Average age of disabled and retired workers, selected years
Line chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 10 percent sample for 1988 and 1990–2005 and 100 percent data for all other years.

Beneficiaries, by Sex, December 2009

Of all adults receiving monthly Social Security benefits, 44% were men and 56% were women. Eighty percent of the men and 61% of the women received retired-worker benefits. About one-sixth of the women received survivor benefits.

Adult beneficiaries, by type of beneficiary and sex
One pie chart for Men and one pie chart for Women described in the text. In addition, 19% of the men and 14% of the women received disabled-worker benefits and 9% of the women received benefits as spouses of retired and disabled workers.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.
NOTE: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

Average Monthly Benefit, by Sex, December 2009

Among retired and disabled workers who collected benefits based on their own work records, men received a higher average monthly benefit than did women. For those with benefits based on another person's work record (spouses and survivors), women had higher average benefits.

Average monthly benefit (in dollars)
Beneficiary Men Women
All beneficiaries 1,284 972
Workers
Retired 1,312 1,011
Disabled 1,189 925
Spouses of—
Retired workers 348 579
Disabled workers 235 289
Survivors of deceased workers
Nondisabled widow(er)s 962 1,126
Disabled widow(er)s 497 692
Mothers and fathers 724 851
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.

Women Beneficiaries, 1940–2009

The proportion of women among retired-worker beneficiaries has quadrupled since 1940. The percentage climbed from 12% in 1940 to 47% in 1980, 48% in 1990, and 49% in 2009. The proportion of women among disabled-worker beneficiaries has more than doubled since 1957, when DI benefits first became payable. The percentage rose steadily from 19% in 1957 to 35% in 1990 and 47% in 2009.

Women beneficiaries as a percentage of retired workers and disabled workers, selected years
Line chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.

Women with Dual Entitlement, 1960–2009

The proportion of women aged 62 or older who are receiving benefits as dependents (that is, on the basis of their husbands' earnings record only) has been declining—from 57% in 1960 to 27% in 2009. At the same time, the proportion of women with dual entitlement (that is, paid on the basis of both their own earnings records and those of their husbands) has been increasing—from 5% in 1960 to 28% in 2009.

Women aged 62 or older, by basis of entitlement, selected years
Area chart described in the text. In addition, the percentage of women who are entitled solely on their own earnings records as retired or disabled workers has remained fairly close to 40% over this period, slowly rising in recent years to 45% in 2009.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 10 percent sample for 1993–2005 and 100 percent data for all other years.

SSI Program

Number of Recipients, 1974–2009

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program provides income support to needy persons aged 65 or older, blind or disabled adults, and blind or disabled children. Eligibility requirements and federal payment standards are nationally uniform. SSI replaced the former federal/state adult assistance programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Payments under SSI began in January 1974, with 3.2 million persons receiving federally administered payments. By December 1974, this number had risen to nearly 4 million and remained at about that level until the mid-1980s, then rose steadily, reaching nearly 6 million in 1993 and 7 million by the end of 2004. As of December 2009, the number of recipients was 7.7 million. Of this total, 4.5 million were between the ages of 18 and 64, 2 million were aged 65 or older, and 1.2 million were under age 18.

Persons receiving federally administered SSI payments, December
Line chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.

Payment Amounts, by Age, December 2009

The average monthly federally administered SSI payment was $499. Payments varied by age group, ranging from an average of $593 for recipients aged under 18 to $404 for those aged 65 or older. The maximum federal benefit rate in December 2009 was $674 for an individual and $1,011 for a couple, plus any applicable state supplementation.

Average monthly federally administered SSI payment
Bar chart described in the text. In addition, recipients aged 18-64 received an average payment of $516.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: Amounts exclude retroactive payments.

Federally Administered Payments, December 2009

A total of 7.7 million persons received federally administered SSI payments. The majority received federal SSI only. States have the option of supplementing the federal benefit rate and are required to do so if that rate is less than the income the recipient would have had under the former state program.

Type of SSI payment
Pie chart. In December 2009, 70% of the nearly 7.7 million SSI recipients received only a federal SSI payment, 27% received federally administered state supplementation along with their federal SSI payment, and 3% received only federally administered state supplementation.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.

Basis for Eligibility and Age of Recipients, December 2009

Fifteen percent of SSI recipients received benefits on the basis of age, the rest on the basis of disability. Twenty-six percent of the recipients were aged 65 or older. In the SSI program, a disabled recipient is still classified as "disabled" after reaching age 65. In the OASDI program, DI beneficiaries are converted to the retirement program when they attain full retirement age.

SSI recipients, by basis for eligibility and age
Two pie charts. The first pie chart shows the percentage distribution in December 2009 of SSI recipients by basis for eligibility: 84% are disabled, 15% are aged, and 1% are blind. The second pie chart shows the same group distributed by age: 16% are under 18, 58% are aged 18–64, and 26% are 65 or older.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.

Percentage Distribution of Recipients, by Age, 1974–2009

The proportion of SSI recipients aged 65 or older has declined from 61% in January 1974 to 26% in December 2009. The overall long-term growth of the SSI program has occurred because of an increase in the number of disabled recipients, most of whom are under age 65.

Percentage distribution of SSI recipients, by age, December
Line chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.

Recipients, by Sex and Age, December 2009

Overall, 55% of the 7.7 million SSI recipients were women, but that percentage varied greatly by age group. Women accounted for 68% of the 2.0 million recipients aged 65 or older, 55% of the 4.5 million recipients aged 18–64, and 34% of the 1.2 million recipients under age 18.

SSI recipients, by sex and age
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.

Other Income, December 2009

Fifty-six percent of SSI recipients aged 65 or older received OASDI benefits, as did 31% of those aged 18–64 and 7% of those under age 18. Other types of unearned income, such as income from assets, were reported most frequently among those under age 18 (20%) and those aged 65 or older (13%). Earned income was most prevalent (5%) among those aged 18–64.

Other income of SSI recipients, by source and age
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.

OASDI, SSI, or Both

All Beneficiaries, December 2009

About 57.6 million people received a payment from Social Security. Most (49.9 million) received OASDI benefits only, about 5.1 million received SSI only, and 2.6 million received payments from both programs.

Beneficiaries receiving OASDI, SSI, or both
Benefit Number
(thousands)
Total (unduplicated) 57,578
OASDI 52,523
OASDI only 49,901
SSI 7,677
SSI only 5,055
Both OASDI and SSI 2,622
 
Distribution of all beneficiaries
Pie chart. Of the 57.6 million beneficiaries in December 2009, 87% received only OASDI benefits, 9% received only SSI benefits, and 5% received both OASDI and SSI benefits.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data; Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.
NOTES: SSI includes federal SSI payments and federally administered state supplementation.
Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

Beneficiaries Aged 65 or Older, December 2009

Benefits were paid to 37 million people aged 65 or older. Over 1.1 million received both OASDI and SSI.

Beneficiaries aged 65 or older receiving OASDI, SSI, or both
Beneficiary Number
(thousands)
Total (unduplicated) 37,485
OASDI
Total 36,594
Retired workers 30,380
Disabled workers 336
Spouses 2,135
Widow(er)s 3,667 a
Disabled adult children 76
OASDI only 35,459
SSI
Total 2,026 b
Receiving SSI only 891
Receiving both OASDI and SSI 1,135
 
Distribution of beneficiaries aged 65 or older,
by program
Pie chart. Of the 37 million beneficiaries aged 65 or older in December 2009, 95% received only OASDI benefits, 3% received both OASDI and SSI benefits, and 2% received only SSI payments.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data; Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.
NOTES: SSI includes federal SSI payments and federally administered state supplementation.
a. Includes persons who received dependent parent's benefits or mother's and father's benefits.
b. Includes 839,600 SSI beneficiaries aged 65 or older who are disabled or blind.

Disabled Beneficiaries Aged 18–64, December 2009

Payments were made to 11.7 million people aged 18–64 on the basis of their own disability. Sixty-two percent received disability payments from the OASDI program only, 27% received payments from the SSI program only, and 11% received payments from both programs.

Disabled beneficiaries aged 18–64 receiving OASDI, SSI, or both
Beneficiary Number
(thousands)
Total (unduplicated) 11,655
OASDI disability
Total 8,517
Workers aged 64 or younger 7,452
Disabled adult children 845
Widow(er)s 220
OASDI disability only 7,204
SSI disability
Total 4,451
Receiving SSI disability only 3,138
Receiving both OASDI and SSI disability 1,313
 
Distribution of disabled beneficiaries aged 18–64
Bar chart described in the text.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data; Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: SSI includes federal SSI payments and federally administered state supplementation.

Children

OASDI Beneficiaries, December 2009

More than 3.2 million children under age 18 and students aged 18–19 received OASDI benefits. Children of deceased workers had the highest average payments, in part because they are eligible to receive monthly benefits based on 75% of the worker's PIA, compared with 50% for children of retired or disabled workers. Overall, the average monthly benefit amount for children was $546.

Number of and average monthly benefit for children of worker beneficiaries
Number of children of—
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
Average monthly benefit for children of—
Bar chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 100 percent data.

SSI Recipients, 1974–2009

In 1974, when the program began, 70,900 blind and disabled children were receiving SSI. That number increased to 995,000 in 1996, declined to 847,000 in 2000, and is now 1,199,788. The relatively high average payment to children (compared with payments made to blind and disabled adults) is due in part to a limited amount of other countable income. The spike in average monthly benefits in 1992 is due to retroactive payments resulting from the Sullivan v. Zebley decision. As of December 2009, blind and disabled children were receiving SSI payments averaging $593.

Number of and average monthly payment to children under age 18 receiving SSI
Number of children under age 18 receiving SSI
Line chart linked to data in table format.
Average monthly SSI payment to children under age 18a
Line chart linked to data in table format.
SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Record Extract format), 100 percent data.
a. As of 1998, these figures exclude retroactive payments.

Social Security Financing

How Social Security Is Financed

Social Security is largely a pay-as-you-go program. Most of the payroll taxes collected from today's workers are used to pay benefits to today's recipients. In 2009, the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds collected $807.5 billion in revenues. Of that amount, 82.6% was derived from payroll taxes and 2.7% from income taxes on Social Security benefits. Interest earned on the government bonds held by the trust funds provided the remaining 14.7% of income. Assets increased in 2009 because income exceeded expenditures for benefit payments and administrative expenses.

Sources and uses of Social Security revenues in 2009
Two pie charts showing the sources and uses of the $807.5 billion in revenue collected by the Social Security trust funds in 2009. The Sources of Revenues pie has three slices. Payroll taxes: 82.6%. Interest: 14.7%. Taxation of benefits: 2.7%. The Uses of Revenues pie has four slices. Benefit payments: 83.7%. Increase in trust funds: 15.1%. Administrative expenses: 0.8%. Railroad Retirement financial interchange: 0.5%.
SOURCE: 2010 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, Table II.B1.
NOTE: Totals do not necessarily equal the sum of rounded components.

Social Security's Demographic Challenge

The number of retired workers is projected to grow rapidly as the members of the post–World War II baby boom continue to reach early retirement age, and will double in less than 30 years. People are also living longer, and the birth rate is low. As a result, the ratio of workers paying Social Security taxes to people collecting benefits will fall from 3.0 to 1 in 2009 to 2.1 to 1 in 2031. The Trustees Report projects that temporarily in 2010 and 2011, and then in each year after 2014, current taxes will not be enough to pay scheduled benefits and administrative expenses. The Trustees Report also projects that redemption of trust fund assets will be sufficient to allow for full payment of scheduled benefits until 2037.

Ratio of covered workers to Social Security beneficiaries
Line chart. In 1955, there were 8.6 workers supporting each retiree. By 1975, that ratio had declined to 3.2 workers per beneficiary and remained between 3.1 and 3.4 over the next 30 years. Current projections have the ratio starting to decline again in 2008, decreasing at an accelerating rate until it reaches 2.1 workers per beneficiary in 2031. Thereafter, it continues to decline by one-tenth of a percentage point approximately every 15 years, arriving in 2085 at only 1.9 workers per beneficiary.
SOURCE: 2010 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, Table IV.B2.

The Long-Run Financial Outlook

Social Security is not sustainable over the long term at current benefit and tax rates. Due to the recent economic recession, the program will temporarily pay more in benefits and expenses than it collects in taxes during 2010 and 2011. This pattern will reverse in 2012 through 2014 as the economy recovers. However, in each year after 2014, the program will pay more in benefits and expenses than it collects in taxes (see the chart below). By 2037 the trust funds will be exhausted. At that point, payroll taxes and other income will flow into the fund but will be sufficient to pay only 78% of program costs. As reported in the 2010 Trustees Report, the shortfall over the next 75 years is 1.92% of taxable payroll.

Social Security income minus costs as a percentage of taxable payroll
Line chart showing Social Security trust fund balance (income minus costs), expressed as a percentage of taxable payroll, from 2010 to 2085. The trust fund balance is about -0.76 percent of taxable payroll in 2010. After a brief upturn, the trust fund balance is projected to decline rapidly. Costs will begin to exceed income in 2015 and the trust fund will become insolvent in 2037. Annual trust fund balances are projected to range between -3.11 and -4.43 percent of taxable payroll from 2035 to 2085.
SOURCE: 2010 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, Table IV.B1.