Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2002

 

Kyrgyzstan

Exchange rate: U.S.$1.00 equals 48.40 soms.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current law: 1990, with amendments.

Type of program: Dual social insurance and social assistance system.

Note: Provisions for the social insurance programs are as of January 1995 unless noted otherwise; for social assistance allowances, as of January 1999.

Coverage

All employed persons and members of cooperatives and state and collective farms.

Special provisions for workers in aviation and the performing arts.

Special social assistance allowances for disadvantaged elderly, disabled, and survivors who are not eligible for employment-related social insurance benefits, without taking into consideration combined household income of recipient.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 2.5% of earnings, of which 0.5% is for unemployment insurance (January 1997).

Employer: 34% of payroll; 23% for state and collective farms (January 1997).

Government: Total cost of social assistance allowances and constant-attendance supplements for the disabled; other subsidies as needed.

The above contributions also finance benefits for work injury, disability, and survivor pensions.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 60 with 25 years of covered employment (men) or age 55 with 20 years of covered employment (women). The qualifying conditions are reduced for hazardous or dangerous work and for mothers with five or more children or with disabled children.

Disability pension: Disability is assessed according to three categories: total disability, requiring constant attendance (Group I); total disability, loss of 80% mobility (Group II); and partial disability, limited ability to work (Group III). The insured must have a minimum of between 1 and 15 years of covered employment, depending on age at the onset of disability.

Survivor pension: The insured had up to 15 years of covered employment. The pension is payable to surviving children whether or not they are dependents of the insured and to nonworking dependents (including the spouse, either parent; if disabled or not yet of pensionable age; and grandparents, if no other support is available).

Covered employment includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for disabled, unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

Social assistance allowances (not income-tested, as of January 1999): Nonworking citizens or otherwise who are not eligible for an old-age, disability, or survivor pension.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: 55% of average monthly earnings (from any 60 consecutive months in the last 15 years) with 25 years (men) or 20 years (women) of work, plus 1% of earnings for each additional year. The pension is payable monthly.

The minimum pension is 100% of the minimum wage (75 soms, January 1997).

The maximum pension is 80% of the average monthly wage.

The maximum average earnings are 10 times the minimum wage.

Partial pension: With at least 5 years of covered employment, the monthly benefit is reduced in proportion to the number of years below the required number of years of coverage for a full pension.

The minimum partial pension is 50% of the minimum wage.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to cost-of-living changes.

Social assistance allowance: The allowance is not income tested, and the amount is linked to the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM); 100 soms a month (April 1998).

If aged 65 or older (men) or aged 55 or older (women), 70% of the GM per month; 100% of the GM a month to high-altitude residents aged 55 or older (men) or aged 50 or older (women); 150% of the GM a month for mothers with five or more children or with disabled children and aged 55 or older (aged 50 or older if also a high-altitude resident).

GM adjustment: The guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is adjusted periodically according to wage changes.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: The total disability pension for a Group I disability is the same as old-age pension plus the constant-attendance supplement. The pension for a Group II disability pension is the same as the old-age pension plus a supplement for single disabled persons requiring constant attendance.

The minimum disability pension is 100% of the minimum wage (75 soms, January 1997).

Partial pension for total disability: With insufficient years of covered employment, the partial pension is the same as the old-age pension.

Constant-attendance supplement: 50% of the minimum pension (100% if blind) a month.

Partial disability (Group III): 30% of the insured's wage.

The minimum monthly pension for a Group III disability is 50% of the minimum old-age pension.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to cost-of-living changes.

Social assistance allowances (not income-tested): 150% of the GM is payable to a Group I disabled person (200% of the GM if disabled since childhood); 100% of the GM for a Group II disabled person (150% if disabled since childhood); 50% of the GM for a Group III disabled person (100% if disabled since childhood).

Also, 200% of the GM is payable to disabled children up to age 16 (age 21 if a student) suffering from cerebral palsy; 150% of the GM for disabled children under age 16 (age 21 if a student) and to children infected with HIV or AIDS.

GM adjustment: The guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is adjusted periodically according to wage changes.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: Payable monthly at 30% of the insured's wage for each dependent under age 16 (age 21 if a full-time student) or 50% of the minimum wage a month, whichever is greater.

Full orphans: 30% of the wages of both parents.

The minimum full-orphan pension is 100% of the minimum wage.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to cost-of-living changes.

Social assistance allowances (not income-tested): 100% of the GM a month for each orphan under age 16 (age 21 if a full-time student); 150% of the GM a month for a full orphan.

Funeral grant: For the death of a social assistance allowance recipient, a lump sum of 500% of the GM is payable to either the surviving parent or to other family members.

GM adjustment: The guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is adjusted periodically according to wage changes.

Administrative Organization

Republic Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general coordination and oversight.

Provincial and county offices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection administer the program.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current law: 1955, with amendments. (Details of 1996 state social insurance and 1997 medical insurance not available.)

Type of program: Dual social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical care) system.

Coverage

Cash benefits: Employed persons, students, and members of cooperatives.

Medical care: All residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: None.

Medical care: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: 6% of payroll.

Medical care: None.

Government

Cash benefits: None.

Medical care: Total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash and medical benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: 60% of earnings with less than 5 years of uninterrupted work; 80% with between 5 and 8 years; 100% with more than 8 years (or with three or more dependent children, if a disabled veteran, or if disabled as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident). The benefit is payable after a 5-day waiting period.

Maternity benefit: 100% of earnings, payable for a total of 126 calendar days before and after the expected date of childbirth (may be extended to 140 days if there are complications during childbirth).

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients through government or enterprise-administered health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, maternity care, and transportation.

Providers may charge fees for services.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Same as for the head of the household.

Administrative Organization

Cash benefits: Republic Social Fund provides general oversight and administers the program.

Employers pay cash benefits.

Medical care: Republic Ministry of Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. The Ministry of Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services delivered through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current laws: 1955 (short-term benefits) and 1990 (pensions), with 1992 and 1994 amendments.

Type of program: Dual social insurance (short-term benefits and pensions) and universal (medical care) system.

Coverage

Employed persons, students, and members of cooperatives. Medical care is available to all residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer

Disability and survivor benefits: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Cash sickness benefit: See Sickness and Maternity, above.

Government

Disability and survivor benefits: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Cash sickness benefit: None.

Medical care: Total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

100% of earnings. The benefit is payable from the first day of incapacity until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: See the permanent disability pension under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients through government or enterprise-administered health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, transportation, and the full cost of appliances and medicines.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: See the survivor pension under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Republic Social Fund provides general supervision. Enterprises and employers pay cash benefits to their own employees.

Pensions: Republic Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general coordination and oversight. Provincial and county offices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection administer the program.

Medical care: Republic Ministry of Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. The Ministry of Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services delivered through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1921.

Current law: 1991, with 1994 amendment.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Citizens between ages 16 and 59 (men) or 16 and 54 (women).

Source of Funds

Employee: 0.5% of wages, taken from the contribution for Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer: 1.5% of payroll.

Government: Subsidies as needed from republic and local governments.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefit: Registered at an employment office and able and willing to work. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the worker is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating conditions for a job placement or vocational training, or for filing fraudulent claims.

Unemployment Benefits

The benefit is payable monthly for no more than 26 calendar weeks.

The minimum benefit is 100% of the minimum wage for all categories of unemployed, including students who are unemployed within 12 months of graduation; 150% of the minimum wage if in covered employment for more than 1/2 of the period required for the old-age pension.

Dependent supplement: 10% of the unemployment benefit for each dependent.

Administrative Organization

Republic Employment Service and local employment centers administer the program.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1944.

Current law: 1998.

Type of program: Social assistance (income-tested) system.

Note: Provisions are as of January 1999.

Coverage

Children of single-parent families and of unwed mothers; students (under age 21) of disabled or unemployed parents.

For orphaned children, see social assistance allowances under survivor benefits in Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Employer: None.

Government: Total cost from general revenues.

Qualifying Conditions

Family allowances: Allowances are income-tested. Household per capita income, equal to the average of 3 months preceding the claim for allowances, must be lower than 100% of the GM of 100 soms a month (April 1998).

Family Allowance Benefits

100% of the GM a month is payable for a mother on leave to care for a child under 18 months old; 100% of the GM if caring for two children under age 3; or 150% of the GM if caring for three children under age 16. All benefits are income-tested.

Social assistance allowance: An allowance is also payable to each child under age 16 (age 21 if a full-time student). The allowance amount equals the difference between family average per capita income and the GM.

Birth grant: A lump sum equal to 300% for each newborn child.

GM adjustment: The guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is adjusted periodically according to wage changes.

Administrative Organization

Republic Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and local offices administer the program.