Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2008

 

Kyrgyzstan

Exchange rate: US$1.00 equals 36.40 soms.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current law: 1997 (state pension).

Type of program: Notional defined contribution (NDC) social insurance and social assistance system.

Coverage

Social insurance: All employed persons and members of cooperatives and state and collective farms.

Special system for armed forces personnel.

Special provisions for workers in aviation, the performing arts, and citizens with special merits.

Social assistance: Disadvantaged older persons, disabled persons, and survivors who are not eligible for social insurance benefits. Total household income is not considered.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 8% of earnings.

The insured person's contributions also finance sickness and maternity, work injury, and unemployment benefits.

Self-employed person: A fixed amount is paid, depending on the type of work.

The self-employed person's contributions also finance work injury benefits.

Employer: 19% of payroll.

The employer's contributions also finance sickness and maternity and work injury benefits.

Government: The total cost of social assistance allowances and constant-attendance supplements for the disabled; part of the cost of work injury pensions; other subsidies as needed.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 63 with at least 25 years of covered employment (men) or age 58 with at least 20 years of covered employment (women).

Covered employment also includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for disabled persons, registered unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

The qualifying conditions are reduced for periods of full-time underground work, full-time work in hazardous conditions, work associated with the Chernobyl catastrophe, for mothers with five or more children or at least one disabled child, and for little people.

Pension supplement (old-age): Aged 80 or older; veterans of the Second World War; caregivers of Group II (totally disabled with an 80% loss of mobility) disabled persons; and single Group II disabled persons.

Pensions are not payable abroad if the pensioner emigrates permanently.

Social assistance allowance (old-age): Paid to persons not eligible for an old-age pension. There is no income test.

Disability pension: There are three groups of assessed disability: totally disabled and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled with an 80% loss of mobility (Group II); and partially disabled with some loss in working capacity (Group III). The insured must have between 1 year and 5 years of covered employment, depending on the insured's age when the disability began.

Covered employment also includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for disabled persons, registered unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

The degree of disability is assessed by a Ministry of Labor and Social Protection expert commission.

Pension supplement (disability): Paid to Group I disabled persons, single Group II disabled persons, and persons who worked at the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Pensions are not payable abroad if the pensioner emigrates permanently.

Social assistance allowance (disability): Paid to persons not eligible for a disability pension. There is no income test.

Survivor pension: Paid if the deceased had between 1 year and 5 years of covered employment, depending on age at the time of death.

Covered employment also includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for disabled persons, registered unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

Eligible survivors are the spouse; surviving children younger than age 16 (age 21 if a student); nonworking dependents, including sisters, brothers, and grandchildren younger than age 16; and parents of pensionable age or disabled.

Pensions are not payable abroad if the pensioner emigrates permanently.

Social assistance allowance (survivors): Paid to survivors not eligible for a survivor pension. There is no income test.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The monthly pension is the sum of a base element (530 soms, but not less than 12% of the average wage in the last year), an insurance element based on years of covered employment and earnings for the period before January 1, 1996, and an insurance element based on the value of accumulated contributions beginning January 1, 1996, onward.

The insurance element for the period before January 1, 1996, is calculated as average earnings for 60 consecutive working months multiplied by 1% for every complete year of insured employment. The insurance element for the period beginning January 1, 1996, onward is calculated as accumulated contributions (of at least 1 year) divided by 12 months and multiplied by a coefficient.

There is no maximum pension.

The maximum average earnings for benefit calculation purposes are equal to 20 times the minimum wage.

Partial pension: With less than the required number of years of covered employment, a percentage of the full pension is paid according to the number of years of covered employment.

Pension supplement: The supplement is between 50% and 475% of the calculated pension amount.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Social assistance allowance (old-age): The allowance is based on the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM). There is no income test.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: If totally disabled and requiring constant attendance (Group I), the monthly pension is the sum of a base element (530 soms or 12% of the average wage in the last year, whichever is greater), an insurance element based on years of covered employment and earnings for the period before January 1, 1996, and an insurance element based on the value of accumulated contributions from January 1, 1996, onward.

The insurance element for the period before January 1, 1996, is calculated as average earnings for 60 consecutive working months multiplied by 1% for every complete year of insured employment. The insurance element for the period beginning January 1, 1996, onward is calculated as accumulated contributions (of at least 1 year) divided by 12 months and multiplied by a coefficient.

Constant-attendance supplement: 100% of the calculated pension amount is paid per month.

The pension for a Group II disability is calculated in the same way as a Group I disability, plus a pension supplement for single disabled persons requiring constant attendance.

Pension supplement: The supplement is between 50% and 475% of the calculated pension.

Partial pension for total disability: With less than the required number of years of covered employment, a percentage of the full pension is paid according to the number of years of covered employment.

Partial disability (Group III): Equal to 50% of the calculated pension.

There is no maximum disability pension.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Social assistance allowance (disability): 245% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is paid to a Group I disabled person (320% if disabled since childhood); 150% of the GM for a Group II disabled person (170% if disabled since childhood); 95% of the GM for a Group III disabled person (150% if disabled since childhood).

Also, 320% of the GM is paid to disabled children up to age 18 diagnosed with cerebral palsy; 225% for disabled children younger than age 18 (age 21 if a full-time student); and children diagnosed with HIV or AIDS.

There is no income test.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The monthly pension for one survivor is equal to 50% of the Group II disability pension that would have been paid to the deceased; 90% for two; 120% for three, or 150% for four or more survivors.

Full orphan's pension: The pension is equal to the sum of all pensions that would have been paid for both parents.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Social assistance allowance (survivors): 150% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is paid a month for each orphan younger than age 16 (age 21 if a full-time student); 225% for a full orphan. There is no income test.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Funeral grant: The lump sum paid for the death of an insured pensioner is equal to 10 times the deceased's base element; if the deceased did not qualify for a pension, the lump sum paid is equal to 10 times the minimum wage.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general coordination and oversight.

Provincial and county offices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection administer the program.

Social Fund administers benefits.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current laws: 1955, with amendments; 1996 (social insurance); and 1997 (medical insurance), with 2005 amendment.

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Employed persons, students, and members of cooperatives.

Medical benefits: All persons residing in the country.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Cash benefits: None.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Medical benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: The monthly benefit is equal to 75% of seven times the minimum wage or seven times the minimum wage with three or more dependent children, if a disabled veteran, or if disabled as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Maternity benefit: The benefit is equal to seven times the minimum wage and is paid for a total of 126 calendar days before and after the expected date of childbirth (may be extended to 140 days if there are complications during childbirth).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients through government or enterprise-administered health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, maternity care, and transportation.

Providers may charge fees for services.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients through government or enterprise-administered health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, maternity care, and transportation.

Providers may charge fees for services.

Administrative Organization

Cash benefits: Social Fund provides general oversight and administers the program.

Employers pay cash benefits.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health (http://www.med.kg) is responsible for policy.

Ministry of Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. The Ministry of Health and local health departments administer medical services delivered through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Mandatory Health Insurance Fund provides health care benefits.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current laws: 1955 (short-term benefits); 1990 (pensions), with 1992 and 1994 amendments; and 2005 (labor safety).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Employed persons, students, and members of cooperatives.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Temporary disability benefits: None.

Permanent disability and survivor benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

100% of earnings is paid from the first day of incapacity until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

The degree of disability is assessed by a Ministry of Labor and Social Protection expert commission.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: The pension depends on the severity of the assessed disability: totally disabled and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled with an 80% loss in mobility (Group II); and partially disabled with some loss in working capacity (Group III).

If totally disabled and requiring constant attendance (Group I), the monthly pension is the sum of a base element (530 soms, but not less than 12% of the average wage in the last year), an insurance element based on years of covered employment and earnings for the period before January 1, 1996, and an insurance element based on the value of accumulated contributions beginning January 1, 1996, onward.

The insurance element for the period before January 1, 1996, is calculated as average earnings for 60 consecutive working months multiplied by 1% for every complete year of insured employment. The insurance element for the period beginning January 1, 1996, onward is calculated as accumulated contributions (of at least 1 year) divided by 12 months and multiplied by a coefficient.

Constant-attendance supplement: 50% of the minimum pension (100% if blind) a month.

The pension for a Group II disability pension is the same as the Group I pension, plus a pension supplement for single disabled persons requiring constant attendance.

Pension supplement: The supplement is between 50% and 475% of the calculated pension.

Partial disability (Group III): Equal to 50% of the calculated pension.

The minimum disability pension is equal to 100% of the minimum wage.

The degree of disability is assessed by a Ministry of Labor and Social Protection expert commission.

Pensions for a work injury or an occupational disease are payable abroad.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Workers' Medical Benefits

All necessary medical care is provided.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The monthly pension for one survivor is equal to 50% of the Group II disability pension that would have been paid to the deceased; 90% for two survivors; 120% for three survivors; 150% for four or more survivors.

Full orphan's pension: Paid at the same rates as the survivor pension (above) but based on the Group II disability pensions that would have been paid for both parents.

The minimum full orphan's pension is equal to 100% of the minimum wage.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the cost of living.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Social Fund provides general supervision.

Enterprises and employers pay cash benefits to their employees.

Permanent disability and survivor pensions: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general coordination and oversight.

Provincial and county offices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection administer the program.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health (http://www.med.kg) and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. The Ministry of Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services delivered through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1921.

Current law: 1998 (supporting employment), with 2000, 2001, and 2003 amendments.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Employed persons between age 16 and the pensionable age.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Self-employed person: Not applicable.

Employer: None.

Government: Subsidies as needed from central and local governments.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefit: Must be registered at an employment office and able and willing to work. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the worker is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating conditions for a job placement or vocational training, or filing fraudulent claims.

Also paid to students who register as unemployed in the 12 months after graduation.

Unemployment Benefits

The minimum benefit is 100% of the minimum wage. The benefit is paid monthly for up to 6 calendar months.

Dependent's supplement: 10% of the unemployment benefit is paid for each dependent.

Administrative Organization

Employment Service and local employment centers administer the program.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1944.

Current law: 1998 (state allowances), with 2001 and 2002 amendments.

Type of program: Social assistance system.

Coverage

Children of single-parent families or of unwed mothers; students (younger than age 18) with disabled or unemployed parents.

For orphans, see social assistance allowances (survivor benefits) under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Self-employed person: None.

Employer: None.

Government: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Family allowances (income tested): Household per capita income, based on average income during the 3 months before making the claim, must be lower than 100% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM).

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Social assistance allowance: Paid for each child younger than age 16 (age 18 if a full-time student).

Birth grant: Paid for each newborn child.

Family Allowance Benefits

Family allowances (income tested): 100% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is paid monthly for a mother on leave caring for a child younger than age 18 months or caring for two children younger than age 3; 150% of the GM if caring for three children younger than age 16.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Social assistance allowance: The allowance is equal to the difference between family average per capita income and the GM.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Birth grant: A lump sum equal to 300% of the GM for each newborn child.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and local offices administer the program.