Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2012

 

Kyrgyzstan

Exchange rate: US$1.00 = 46.40 soms.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current law: 1997 (state pension) and 2008 (individual account).

Type of program: Social insurance, notional defined contribution (NDC), mandatory individual account, and social assistance system.

Coverage

Social insurance: All employed persons and members of cooperatives and state and collective farms.

Special system for armed forces personnel.

Special provisions for workers in aviation and the performing arts and for citizens with special merits.

Social assistance: Needy persons who are not eligible for social insurance benefits.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 10% of earnings (2% is transferred to an individual account).

The insured person's contributions also finance sickness, maternity, work injury and unemployment benefits.

Self-employed person: 9.25% of monthly average earnings.

The self-employed person's contributions also finance work injury benefits.

Employer: 17.25% of payroll.

The employer's contributions also finance sickness and maternity and work injury benefits.

Government: The total cost of social assistance allowances and constant-attendance supplements for persons with disabilities.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 63 with 25 years of covered employment (men) or age 58 with 20 years of covered employment (women).

Covered employment includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for persons with disabilities, registered unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

The qualifying conditions are reduced for periods of full-time underground work, full-time work in hazardous conditions, Chernobyl disaster-related work, for mothers with five or more children or at least one child with a disability, and for little people.

Partial pension: Paid with less than the required number of years of covered employment for a full old-age pension.

Pension supplement (old age): Persons aged 80 or older, World War II veterans, Chernobyl disaster workers, persons with a Group I disability (requires constant attendance), caregivers of persons with a Group II disability (totally disabled with an 80% loss of mobility), and single persons with a Group II disability.

Pensions are payable in Russia under bilateral agreement.

Old-age social pension (social assistance): Paid at the normal retirement age to persons not eligible for an old-age pension. There is no income test.

Disability pension: The insured must have one to five years of covered employment, depending on the insured's age when the disability began. Must be assessed with a Group I (total disability and requires constant attendance), Group II (total disability with an 80% loss of mobility), or Group III (partial disability with some loss in working capacity) disability.

Covered employment includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for persons with disabilities, registered unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

An expert commission of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection assesses the degree of disability.

Constant-attendance supplement: Paid if the insured requires the constant attendance of others to perform daily functions.

Partial disability pension: Paid with less than the required number of years of covered employment for a full total disability pension.

Pension supplement (disability): Paid to a person with a Group I disability, single persons with a Group II disability, and Chernobyl disaster workers.

Pensions are payable in Russia under bilateral agreement.

Disability social pension (social assistance): Paid to persons assessed with disabilities who are not eligible for the disability pension.

Survivor pension: Paid if the deceased had one to five years of covered employment, depending on age at the time of death.

Covered employment includes periods of study, maternity leave, caring for disabled persons, registered unemployment, and other leave periods approved by special decree.

Eligible survivors include the spouse; children younger than age 16 (age 21 if a student); nonworking dependents, including sisters, brothers, and grandchildren younger than age 16; and parents of pensionable age or disabled.

Pensions are not payable abroad if the pensioner emigrates permanently.

Survivor social pension (social assistance): Paid to survivors not eligible for a survivor pension. There is no income test.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The monthly benefit is the sum of several components: a basic flat-rate benefit, a social insurance component, an NDC component, and a benefit from the mandatory individual account.

The flat-rate benefit is 1,500 soms or 12% of the average wage in the last year, whichever is higher.

The social insurance component is calculated as average earnings for 60 consecutive working months multiplied by 1% for every complete year of insured employment before 1996.

The maximum average earnings used to calculate benefits are 50 times the basic rate.

The basic rate is 100 soms from (January 2010).

The NDC component is calculated as accumulated contributions (of at least one year) since 1996 divided by 12 months and multiplied by a coefficient.

There is no maximum pension.

The individual account benefit is based on the account balance at retirement.

Partial pension: A percentage of the full pension is paid according to the number of years of covered employment.

Pension supplement: 50% to 475% of the basic rate is paid.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to the changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Old-age social pension (social assistance): A monthly pension is paid.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: If assessed with a Group I or Group II disability, the monthly pension is the sum of several components: a basic flat-rate benefit, a social insurance component, and an NDC component. If assessed with a Group III disability, 50% of the full disability pension is paid.

The flat-rate benefit is 1,500 soms or 12% of the average wage in the last year, whichever is higher.

The social insurance component is calculated as average earnings for 60 consecutive working months multiplied by 1% for every complete year of insured employment before 1996.

The maximum average earnings used to calculate benefits are 50 times the basic rate.

The basic rate is 100 soms (January 2010).

The NDC component is calculated as accumulated contributions (of at least one year) since 1996 divided by 12 months and multiplied by a coefficient.

There is no maximum disability pension.

Constant-attendance supplement: 200% of the basic rate is paid for blind persons and 100% of a specified rate for other categories of disabilities.

Partial disability pension: A percentage of the full pension is paid accoding to the number of years of covered employment.

Pension supplement: 50% to 475% of the basic rate is paid.

The basic rate is 100 soms (January 2010).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Disability social pension (social assistance): A monthly pension is paid.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: 50% of the Group II disability pension the deceased received or was eligible to receive is paid for one survivor; 90% for two; 120% for three; and 150% for four or more survivors.

Full orphan's pension: The pension is the sum of all pensions that both parents received or were eligible to receive.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Social survivor pension (social assistance): 150% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is paid a month for each orphan younger than age 16 (age 21 if a full-time student); 225% for a full orphan. There is no income test.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Funeral grant: A lump sum of 10 times the basic component is paid when a pensioner dies. If the deceased did not qualify for a pension, a lump sum of five to 15 times the basic rate is paid.

The basic component is 1,500 soms or 12% of the average wage in the last year, whichever is higher.

The basic rate is 100 soms (January 2010).

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (http://www.mlsp.kg) provides general coordination and oversight.

Provincial and county offices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection administer the program.

Social Fund pays benefits.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current laws: 1955, 1996 (social insurance), and 1997 (medical insurance).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Employed persons, students, and members of cooperatives.

Exclusions: Self-employed persons.

Medical benefits: All persons residing in Kyrgyzstan.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Cash benefits: None.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash sickness and maternity benefits and medical benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: The monthly benefit is 75% of seven times the minimum wage (100% with three or more dependent children, if a disabled veteran, or if disabled as a result of the Chernobyl disaster).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average national wage and the consumer price index.

Maternity benefit: Seven times the minimum wage is paid for a total of 126 calendar days before and after the expected date of childbirth (may be extended to 140 days if there are complications during childbirth).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients through government or enterprise-administered health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, maternity care, and transportation.

Providers may charge fees for services.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Medical benefits for dependents are the same as those for the insured.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Health and local government health departments provide general supervision and coordination and oversee medical services delivered through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Mandatory Health Insurance Fund provides health care benefits.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1922.

Current laws: 1955 (short-term benefits), 1990 (pensions), and 2005 (labor safety).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Employed persons, students, and members of cooperatives.

Exclusions: Self-employed persons.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Temporary disability benefits: None.

Permanent disability and survivor benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

100% of earnings is paid from the first day of incapacity until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: Must be assessed with a Group I (total disability and requires constant attendance), Group II (total disability with an 80% loss of mobility), or Group III (partial disability with some loss in working capacity) disability.

If assessed with a Group I or Group II disability, the monthly pension is the sum of a basic component, an insurance component based on years of covered employment and earnings for the period before 1996, and an insurance component based on the value of accumulated contributions since 1996. If assessed with a Group III disability, 50% of the full disability pension is paid.

The basic component is 1,500 soms or 12% of the average wage in the last year, whichever is higher.

The insurance component for the period before 1996 is calculated as average earnings for 60 consecutive working months multiplied by 1% for every complete year of insured employment.

The insurance component for the period since 1996 is calculated as accumulated contributions (of at least one year) divided by 12 months and multiplied by a coefficient.

Constant-attendance supplement: 100% of the basic rate is paid if blind and requiring the constant attendance of others to perform daily functions; 50% of the basic rate for other categories of disabilities.

The basic rate is 100 soms (January 2010).

Pension supplement: 50% to 475% of the basic rate is paid.

The basic rate is 100 soms (January 2010).

The minimum disability pension is 100% of the minimum wage.

Pensions for a work injury or an occupational disease are payable abroad.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Workers' Medical Benefits

All necessary medical care is provided.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: 50% of the Group II disability pension the deceased received or was eligible to receive is paid for one survivor; 90% for two survivors; 120% for three survivors; and 150% for four or more survivors.

Full orphan's pension: Paid at the same rates as the survivor pension (above) but based on the Group II disability pensions both parents received or were eligible to receive.

The minimum full orphan's pension is 100% of the minimum wage.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage and the consumer price index.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Social Fund provides general supervision.

Enterprises and employers pay cash benefits to their employees.

Permanent disability and survivor pensions: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general coordination and oversight.

Provincial and county offices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection administer the program.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health (http://www.med.kg) and local government health departments provide general supervision and coordination and oversee medical services delivered through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1921.

Current law: 1998 (supporting employment).

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Employed persons.

Exclusions: Self-employed persons.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Self-employed person: Not applicable.

Employer: None.

Government: Central and local governments provide subsidies as needed.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefit: Must be registered at an employment office and able and willing to work. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the worker is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating conditions for a job placement or vocational training, or filing fraudulent claims.

Also paid to students who register as unemployed in the 12 months after graduation.

Unemployment Benefits

At least 100% of the minimum wage is paid monthly for up to six calendar months.

Dependent's supplement: 10% of the unemployment benefit is paid for each dependent.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (http://www.mlsp.kg) provides general oversight.

Employment Service and local employment centers administer the program.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1944.

Current law: 1998 (state allowances).

Type of program: Social assistance system.

Coverage

Children of single-parent families or of unwed mothers; students (younger than age 18) with disabled or unemployed parents.

For orphans, see social survivor pension under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Self-employed person: None.

Employer: None.

Government: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Family allowances (income tested): Household per capita income, based on average income during the three months before making the claim, must be lower than 100% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM).

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Social assistance allowance: Paid for each child younger than age 16 (age 18 if a full-time student).

Birth grant: Paid for each newborn child.

Family Allowance Benefits

Family allowances (income tested): 100% of the guaranteed minimum standard of living (GM) is paid monthly for a mother on leave caring for a child younger than age 18 months or caring for two children younger than age 3; 150% of the GM if caring for three children younger than age 16.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Social assistance allowance: The allowance is the difference between family average per capita income and the GM.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Birth grant: A lump sum of 300% of the GM is paid for each newborn child.

The GM is 200 soms and is adjusted periodically according to changes in wages.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (http://www.mlsp.kg) and local offices administer the program.