Annual Statistical Report on the Social Security Disability Insurance Program, 2001

 

Income of Noninstitutionalized Disabled Beneficiaries: SIPP

Individual Income

Notes

The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) is a household survey of the noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States, conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The survey was designed to improve the measurement of the economic situation of persons, families, and households in the United States and to provide a tool for managing and evaluating government transfer and service programs.

The 1996 SIPP panel consists of 12 interviews, or waves, each of which gathered 4 months of retrospective data. The sample includes approximately 36,000 households, divided into four rotation groups. The SIPP has been matched to the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) administrative records. Receipt of disability benefits and the monthly benefit amount is based on December 1999 SSA records, and all other characteristics are taken from the SIPP. In December 1999, only three of the four SIPP rotation groups were interviewed. However, since rotation groups are assigned randomly, the sample is still nationally representative. SIPP sample weights are used to produce population estimates. The weights have been adjusted to reflect the fact that only three of the four rotation groups were used for the tabulations.

Poverty calculations based on the SIPP use survey-reported family income for 1999, with the survey-reported Social Security disability and SSI benefit amounts replaced by the Social Security disability and SSI benefit amounts from SSA administrative records. The poverty thresholds are provided in the SIPP and are adjusted for family size and composition. In 1999, the poverty threshold for a one-person family under age 65 was $8,667. For a two-person family aged 65 or older, the poverty threshold was $10,070. For a four-person family with two related children under the age of 18, the poverty threshold was $16,895.

In tabulations of Medicaid coverage, the SIPP Medicaid variable has been recoded to reflect the fact that SSI beneficiaries in certain states, sometimes referred to as Section 1634 states, are automatically covered by Medicaid. Thirty-two states plus the District of Columbia provide automatic Medicaid coverage for SSI beneficiaries, accounting for approximately 78 percent of all SSI beneficiaries.

SIPP and SSA counts of disabled beneficiaries differ because the SIPP excludes people living in institutions or outside the continental United States. In addition, the match rate between the SIPP and SSA records is not perfect. Furthermore, the SIPP estimates are based on a sample and therefore are subject to sampling error. Standard errors can be used to measure this sampling variability. Various sources of nonsampling error also may be important.

Because the SIPP uses a complex sample design, it is inappropriate to calculate standard errors assuming a simple random sample. Doing so will result in estimated standard errors that are biased downward. Readers interested in information about SIPP variance estimates are referred to the Source and Accuracy Statement for the 1996 Public Use Files from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, available on the SIPP Internet site at www.sipp.census.gov/sipp/sourceac/s&a96_040501.pdf. The source and accuracy statement provides information on direct calculation of standard errors for SIPP estimates. It also provides detailed instructions for calculating standard errors using generalized variance parameters and simplified tables.

Table 43. Distribution, by selected personal characteristics, December 1999
Characteristic Number Percentage of all in category
Total Workers Adult
children
Total Workers Adult
children
All noninstitutionalized disabled beneficiaries 6,145,121 5,444,977 625,172 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Sex
Men 3,632,828 3,273,514 359,313 59.1 60.1 57.5
Women 2,512,293 2,171,462 265,858 40.9 39.9 42.5
Race
White 4,830,983 4,310,471 459,014 78.6 79.2 73.4
Black 1,134,631 989,124 137,833 18.5 18.2 22.0
American Indian, Alaska Native 125,652 91,527 28,324 2.0 1.7 4.5
Asian, Pacific Islander 53,855 53,855 a 0.9 1.0 a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 5,709,753 5,102,349 542,930 92.9 93.7 86.8
Hispanic 435,368 342,628 82,241 7.1 6.3 13.2
Relationship to householder
Householder 3,836,233 3,641,047 127,887 62.4 66.9 20.5
Spouse 1,117,357 1,112,818 a 18.2 20.4 0.0
Child 847,078 454,837 392,242 13.8 8.4 62.7
Grandchild 6,573 a 6,573 0.1 a 1.1
Parent 46,279 46,279 a 0.8 0.8 a
Sibling 104,217 65,810 38,408 1.7 1.2 6.1
Other relative 74,095 46,327 27,768 1.2 0.9 4.4
Other nonrelative 113,288 77,860 32,294 1.8 1.4 5.2
Years of education
0-8 954,373 653,094 258,918 15.5 12.0 41.4
9-11 1,108,516 996,712 102,967 18.0 18.3 16.5
12 2,127,622 1,909,447 202,057 34.6 35.1 32.3
13-15 1,369,984 1,326,309 43,675 22.3 24.4 7.0
16 or more 584,626 559,416 17,555 9.5 10.3 2.8
Marital status
Married 2,796,830 2,786,121 6,169 45.5 51.2 1.0
Widowed 338,715 271,608 a 5.5 5.0 a
Divorced or separated 1,399,011 1,395,685 a 22.8 25.6 a
Never married 1,610,564 991,562 619,002 26.2 18.2 99.0
Health insurance b
Medicaid 2,535,368 1,966,576 510,386 41.3 36.1 81.6
Medicare 4,311,541 3,810,000 463,467 70.2 70.0 74.1
Private insurance 2,736,599 2,560,267 160,423 44.5 47.0 25.7
No insurance 365,516 334,481 19,008 5.9 6.1 3.0
Source of income b
Earnings 1,350,593 1,182,727 167,865 22.0 21.7 26.9
Supplemental Security Income 1,566,801 1,113,649 402,848 25.5 20.5 64.4
Other public assistance 1,896,317 1,496,732 353,820 30.9 27.5 56.6
Property income 2,625,292 2,499,745 113,059 42.7 45.9 18.1
Other sources 5,460,907 4,867,631 533,281 88.9 89.4 85.3
Total personal income in 1999 c (dollars)
Less than 2,500 438,534 46,374 392,161 7.1 7.2 7.4
2,500-4,999 597,379 52,011 527,609 9.7 9.7 8.3
5,000-7,499 1,257,854 304,645 925,196 20.5 17.0 48.7
7,500-9,999 1,044,851 94,870 941,281 17.0 17.3 15.2
10,000-12,499 708,566 56,125 640,176 11.5 11.8 9.0
12,500-14,999 460,239 12,371 447,867 7.5 8.2 2.0
15,000-17,499 284,165 20,503 263,661 4.6 4.8 3.3
17,500-19,999 279,944 8,193 271,751 4.6 5.0 1.3
20,000-22,499 197,855 6,916 182,703 3.2 3.4 1.1
22,500-24,999 204,904 19,753 185,151 3.3 3.4 3.2
25,000 or more 670,831 3,411 667,420 10.9 12.3 0.5
SOURCE: 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to SSA administrative records.
NOTES: Individuals receiving disability benefits in December 1999 are identified using SSA administrative data. The unweighted sample size is 793 cases for disabled workers and 87 cases for disabled adult children. Disabled widow(er)s are not shown separately because the unweighted sample size is less than 30 cases, which is deemed too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
n.a. = not applicable.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
b. Details do not add to totals because individuals can be counted in more than one category.
c. Annual data.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (202) 358-6225 for further information.
Table 44. Social Security as a percentage of personal income, by selected characteristics, December 1999
Characteristic Number Percentage of total or subtotal Percentage distribution
Total Under 25% of income 25-49% of income 50-74% of income 75-99% of income 100% of income
All disabled beneficiaries
Total 6,145,121 100.0 100.0 25.3 16.5 17.4 25.3 15.4
Age
Under 25 148,086 2.4 100.0 a a a a a
25-34 477,184 7.8 100.0 30.7 22.3 14.6 23.5 9.0
35-44 1,167,284 19.0 100.0 25.0 10.4 18.2 27.6 18.8
45-54 1,887,162 30.7 100.0 23.7 17.6 15.3 25.3 18.2
55 or older 2,465,405 40.1 100.0 25.1 17.4 19.2 24.6 13.8
Sex
Men 3,632,828 59.1 100.0 23.6 18.4 17.4 24.7 15.9
Women 2,512,293 40.9 100.0 27.8 13.9 17.4 26.3 14.7
Race
White 4,830,983 78.6 100.0 25.0 16.4 17.6 26.1 15.0
Black 1,134,631 18.5 100.0 21.1 17.8 18.5 23.5 19.1
American Indian, Alaska Native 125,652 2.0 100.0 a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 53,855 0.9 100.0 a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 5,709,753 92.9 100.0 25.3 16.8 17.2 25.3 15.4
Hispanic 435,368 7.1 100.0 25.0 13.5 19.6 26.3 15.7
Marital status
Married 2,796,830 45.5 100.0 25.5 17.6 16.0 25.5 15.5
Widowed 338,715 5.5 100.0 22.3 11.2 24.8 21.9 19.9
Divorced or separated 1,399,011 22.8 100.0 29.0 16.1 15.6 25.0 14.3
Never married 1,610,564 26.2 100.0 22.4 16.2 19.9 26.1 15.3
Years of education
0-8 954,373 15.5 100.0 23.4 13.8 20.7 25.5 16.6
9-11 1,108,516 18.0 100.0 15.9 11.8 18.7 29.0 24.7
12 2,127,622 34.6 100.0 25.0 18.2 16.1 27.2 13.6
13-15 1,369,984 22.3 100.0 29.4 19.7 16.3 23.1 11.6
16 or more 584,626 9.5 100.0 37.8 16.8 17.3 16.6 11.6
Living arrangement
Lives alone 1,536,534 25.0 100.0 23.9 16.7 19.5 24.5 15.3
Lives with relatives 4,342,941 70.7 100.0 25.9 16.4 16.5 25.5 15.8
Lives only with nonrelatives 265,646 4.3 100.0 23.9 18.0 20.7 27.7 9.7
Disabled workers
Subtotal 5,444,977 100.0 100.0 24.9 17.2 16.0 26.1 15.8
Age
Under 25 23,969 0.4 100.0 a a a a a
25-34 349,104 6.4 100.0 a a a a a
35-44 942,263 17.3 100.0 23.3 11.0 15.9 31.2 18.6
45-54 1,798,631 33.0 100.0 23.5 17.3 15.1 26.2 18.0
55 or older 2,331,009 42.8 100.0 25.2 18.1 17.8 24.4 14.5
Sex
Men 3,273,514 60.1 100.0 23.6 19.1 16.3 25.2 15.9
Women 2,171,462 39.9 100.0 26.9 14.4 15.5 27.5 15.7
Race
White 4,310,471 79.2 100.0 25.4 16.5 15.8 26.7 15.6
Black 989,124 18.2 100.0 18.6 20.5 18.0 24.4 18.6
American Indian, Alaska Native 91,527 1.7 100.0 a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 53,855 1.0 100.0 a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 5,102,349 93.7 100.0 25.2 17.2 16.1 25.8 15.8
Hispanic 342,627 6.3 100.0 20.8 17.1 13.4 31.8 16.9
Marital status
Married 2,786,121 51.2 100.0 25.6 17.6 15.8 25.4 15.6
Widowed 271,608 5.0 100.0 16.7 11.3 25.0 23.8 23.2
Divorced or separated 1,395,685 25.6 100.0 29.1 16.2 15.6 24.8 14.3
Never married 991,562 18.2 100.0 19.1 19.1 14.4 30.7 16.7
Years of education
0-8 653,094 12.0 100.0 21.8 16.1 13.8 28.3 20.1
9-11 996,712 18.3 100.0 16.7 9.7 20.2 28.9 24.4
12 1,909,447 35.1 100.0 24.5 19.2 13.9 28.1 14.3
13-15 1,326,309 24.4 100.0 28.3 20.3 16.6 23.8 11.0
16 or more 559,415 10.3 100.0 36.4 17.5 16.7 17.3 12.1
Living arrangement
Lives alone 1,389,283 25.5 100.0 23.5 17.3 18.2 24.9 16.1
Lives with relatives 3,825,476 70.3 100.0 25.2 17.4 15.0 26.4 16.0
Lives only with nonrelatives 230,218 4.2 100.0 27.6 13.0 18.6 29.7 11.2
Disabled adult children
Subtotal 625,172 100.0 100.0 27.3 11.6 29.5 18.6 13.0
Age
Under 25 124,116 19.9 100.0 a a a a a
25-34 128,081 20.5 100.0 a a a a a
35-44 225,021 36.0 100.0 31.9 8.1 27.9 12.6 19.5
45-54 81,113 13.0 100.0 a a a a a
55 or older 66,841 10.7 100.0 a a a a a
Sex
Men 359,313 57.5 100.0 23.8 12.3 28.1 20.2 15.6
Women 265,858 42.5 100.0 32.1 10.5 31.5 16.5 9.4
Race
White 459,014 73.4 100.0 19.0 15.7 34.1 20.8 10.4
Black 137,833 22.0 100.0 a a a a a
American Indian, Alaska Native 28,324 4.5 100.0 a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 0 0.0 100.0 a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 542,930 86.8 100.0 24.5 13.3 27.7 21.5 13.0
Hispanic 82,241 13.2 100.0 a a a a a
Marital status
Married 6,169 1.0 100.0 a a a a a
Widowed 0 0.0 100.0 a a a a a
Divorced or separated 0 0.0 100.0 a a a a a
Never married 619,002 99.0 100.0 27.6 11.7 28.8 18.8 13.1
Years of education
0-8 258,918 41.4 100.0 26.0 7.6 38.2 17.7 10.6
9-11 102,967 16.5 100.0 a a a a a
12 202,057 32.3 100.0 a a a a a
13-15 43,675 7.0 100.0 a a a a a
16 or more 17,555 2.8 100.0 a a a a a
Living arrangement
Lives alone 106,292 17.0 100.0 a a a a a
Lives with relatives 486,585 77.8 100.0 29.4 9.3 28.0 18.3 15.1
Lives only with nonrelatives 32,294 5.2 100.0 a a a a a
SOURCE: 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to SSA administrative records.
NOTE: Individuals receiving disability benefits in December 1999 are identified using SSA administrative data. The unweighted sample size is 793 cases for disabled workers and 87 cases for disabled adult children. Disabled widow(er)s are not shown separately because the unweighted sample size is less than 30 cases, which is deemed too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (202) 358-6225 for further information.