Annual Statistical Report on the Social Security Disability Insurance Program, 2001

 

Income of Noninstitutionalized Disabled Beneficiaries: SIPP

Family Income

Notes

The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) is a household survey of the noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States, conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The survey was designed to improve the measurement of the economic situation of persons, families, and households in the United States and to provide a tool for managing and evaluating government transfer and service programs.

The 1996 SIPP panel consists of 12 interviews, or waves, each of which gathered 4 months of retrospective data. The sample includes approximately 36,000 households, divided into four rotation groups. The SIPP has been matched to the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) administrative records. Receipt of disability benefits and the monthly benefit amount is based on December 1999 SSA records, and all other characteristics are taken from the SIPP. In December 1999, only three of the four SIPP rotation groups were interviewed. However, since rotation groups are assigned randomly, the sample is still nationally representative. SIPP sample weights are used to produce population estimates. The weights have been adjusted to reflect the fact that only three of the four rotation groups were used for the tabulations.

Poverty calculations based on the SIPP use survey-reported family income for 1999, with the survey-reported Social Security disability and SSI benefit amounts replaced by the Social Security disability and SSI benefit amounts from SSA administrative records. The poverty thresholds are provided in the SIPP and are adjusted for family size and composition. In 1999, the poverty threshold for a one-person family under age 65 was $8,667. For a two-person family aged 65 or older, the poverty threshold was $10,070. For a four-person family with two related children under the age of 18, the poverty threshold was $16,895.

In tabulations of Medicaid coverage, the SIPP Medicaid variable has been recoded to reflect the fact that SSI beneficiaries in certain states, sometimes referred to as Section 1634 states, are automatically covered by Medicaid. Thirty-two states plus the District of Columbia provide automatic Medicaid coverage for SSI beneficiaries, accounting for approximately 78 percent of all SSI beneficiaries.

SIPP and SSA counts of disabled beneficiaries differ because the SIPP excludes people living in institutions or outside the continental United States. In addition, the match rate between the SIPP and SSA records is not perfect. Furthermore, the SIPP estimates are based on a sample and therefore are subject to sampling error. Standard errors can be used to measure this sampling variability. Various sources of nonsampling error also may be important.

Because the SIPP uses a complex sample design, it is inappropriate to calculate standard errors assuming a simple random sample. Doing so will result in estimated standard errors that are biased downward. Readers interested in information about SIPP variance estimates are referred to the Source and Accuracy Statement for the 1996 Public Use Files from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, available on the SIPP Internet site at www.sipp.census.gov/sipp/sourceac/s&a96_040501.pdf. The source and accuracy statement provides information on direct calculation of standard errors for SIPP estimates. It also provides detailed instructions for calculating standard errors using generalized variance parameters and simplified tables.

Table 45. Distribution, by household and family characteristics, December 1999
Characteristic Number Percentage of all in category
Total Workers Adult
children
Total Workers Adult
children
All noninstitutionalized disabled beneficiaries 6,145,121 5,444,977 625,172 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Household type
Family
Married couple present 3,091,594 2,892,442 194,613 50.3 53.1 31.1
No married couple, male householder 242,267 223,003 19,264 3.9 4.1 3.1
No married couple, female householder 1,051,100 727,251 297,509 17.1 13.4 47.6
Nonfamily
Male householder 987,594 912,663 71,797 16.1 16.8 11.5
Female householder 752,445 669,496 41,989 12.2 12.3 6.7
Group quarters 20,122 20,122 a 0.3 0.4 a
Ownership status of living quarters
Owned 3,915,240 3,459,399 414,837 63.7 63.5 66.4
Not owned 2,229,881 1,985,577 210,335 36.3 36.5 33.6
Residence in public housing 393,673 333,964 59,709 6.4 6.1 9.6
Household receipt of--
Energy assistance 293,155 239,695 48,307 4.8 4.4 7.7
Housing assistance 210,446 192,821 9,969 3.4 3.5 1.6
Food stamps 1,146,136 952,653 172,195 18.7 17.5 27.5
Total household income in 1999 b (dollars)
Less than 5,000 243,779 222,865 13,495 4.0 4.1 2.2
5,000-9,999 973,828 865,557 81,842 15.8 15.9 13.1
10,000-14,999 646,183 545,364 84,303 10.5 10.0 13.5
15,000-19,999 594,220 542,995 51,226 9.7 10.0 8.2
20,000-24,999 610,082 516,762 93,320 9.9 9.5 14.9
25,000-29,999 466,633 425,214 33,746 7.6 7.8 5.4
30,000-34,999 431,752 388,648 43,104 7.0 7.1 6.9
35,000-39,999 412,364 358,691 44,972 6.7 6.6 7.2
40,000 or more 1,766,279 1,578,880 179,162 28.7 29.0 28.7
Total family income in 1999 b (dollars)
Less than 5,000 295,445 262,900 19,325 4.8 4.8 3.1
5,000-9,999 1,055,121 929,964 101,396 17.2 17.1 16.2
10,000-14,999 672,542 577,628 78,398 10.9 10.6 12.5
15,000-19,999 629,952 567,231 62,721 10.3 10.4 10.0
20,000-24,999 613,001 512,765 100,236 10.0 9.4 16.0
25,000-29,999 428,190 402,993 20,658 7.0 7.4 3.3
30,000-34,999 428,651 385,547 43,104 7.0 7.1 6.9
35,000-39,999 395,468 341,795 44,972 6.4 6.3 7.2
40,000 or more 1,626,750 1,464,152 154,362 26.5 26.9 24.7
Household size
1 person 1,536,534 1,389,283 106,292 25.0 25.5 17.0
2 persons 2,339,937 2,158,838 150,219 38.1 39.6 24.0
3-4 persons 1,722,256 1,466,629 252,493 28.0 26.9 40.4
5 or more persons 546,394 430,227 116,167 8.9 7.9 18.6
Family size
1 person 1,796,649 1,613,970 138,587 29.2 29.6 22.2
2 persons 2,169,908 1,996,303 142,726 35.3 36.7 22.8
3-4 persons 1,691,263 1,438,769 252,493 27.5 26.4 40.4
5 or more persons 487,302 395,935 91,366 7.9 7.3 14.6
Under age 18 in family
None 4,903,712 4,322,234 511,657 79.8 79.4 81.8
1 person 661,154 598,514 57,488 10.8 11.0 9.2
2 persons 387,376 352,068 35,308 6.3 6.5 5.6
3-4 persons 172,366 151,648 20,719 2.8 2.8 3.3
5 or more persons 20,513 20,513 a 0.3 0.4 a
SOURCE: 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to SSA administrative records.
NOTES: Individuals receiving disability benefits in December 1999 are identified using SSA administrative data. The unweighted sample size is 793 cases for disabled workers and 87 cases for disabled adult children. Disabled widow(er)s are not shown separately because the unweighted sample size is less than 30 cases, which is deemed too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
n.a. = not applicable.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
b. Annual data.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (202) 358-6225 for further information.
Table 46. Percentage distribution of family income, by source and selected characteristics, December 1999
Characteristic Total Social
Security
Supplemental
Security
Income
Earnings Other
public
assistance
Property
income
Other
All noninstitutionalized disabled beneficiaries
Total 100.0 36.4 6.5 31.0 1.5 2.8 21.7
Sex
Men 100.0 37.6 5.0 30.2 1.6 2.5 23.1
Women 100.0 34.8 8.7 32.2 1.3 3.2 19.8
Race
White 100.0 36.6 5.7 30.4 1.2 3.4 22.7
Black 100.0 37.0 8.0 34.6 2.6 0.8 17.1
American Indian, Alaska Native 100.0 a a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 100.0 a a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 100.0 36.2 5.7 31.5 1.4 2.9 22.2
Hispanic 100.0 39.2 16.7 24.5 2.5 1.4 15.6
Age
Under 25 100.0 a a a a a a
25-34 100.0 28.4 12.6 48.8 0.5 0.6 9.0
35-44 100.0 35.6 7.5 35.0 1.4 2.2 18.3
45-54 100.0 40.0 6.7 28.2 2.3 2.4 20.5
55 or older 100.0 36.2 4.7 26.9 1.1 3.5 27.5
Marital status
Married 100.0 27.2 2.5 42.9 1.5 2.8 23.1
Widowed 100.0 44.0 8.2 17.6 0.7 4.9 24.6
Divorced or separated 100.0 42.6 9.4 16.2 2.9 3.5 25.4
Never married 100.0 45.4 10.7 26.0 0.4 1.9 15.5
Years of education
0-8 100.0 46.3 16.4 19.3 3.0 0.8 14.3
9-11 100.0 46.6 6.0 26.3 1.3 1.0 18.8
12 100.0 33.7 5.4 34.8 0.7 3.3 22.0
13-15 100.0 28.9 3.4 35.5 2.4 4.3 25.5
16 or more 100.0 28.6 2.6 34.7 a 4.5 29.6
Living arrangement
Lives alone 100.0 50.3 10.7 10.6 0.8 2.9 24.6
Lives with relatives 100.0 30.9 4.8 39.7 1.7 2.9 20.0
Lives only with nonrelatives 100.0 46.5 10.5 6.7 1.5 1.1 33.7
Disabled workers
Subtotal 100.0 35.5 5.0 32.0 1.6 2.8 23.2
Sex
Men 100.0 36.4 3.7 31.3 1.7 2.7 24.2
Women 100.0 34.1 7.0 33.0 1.4 2.9 21.6
Race
White 100.0 35.4 4.6 31.5 1.3 3.3 23.8
Black 100.0 36.9 6.5 33.7 2.9 0.8 19.3
American Indian, Alaska Native 100.0 a a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 100.0 a a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 100.0 35.3 4.6 32.3 1.5 2.9 23.4
Hispanic 100.0 38.8 11.1 27.3 3.2 0.8 18.8
Age
Under 25 100.0 a a a a a a
25-34 100.0 a a a a a a
35-44 100.0 34.0 4.7 37.2 1.8 2.1 20.2
45-54 100.0 39.6 6.3 29.2 2.4 2.4 20.2
55 or older 100.0 35.0 3.9 27.5 1.2 3.7 28.8
Marital status
Married 100.0 27.3 2.4 42.7 1.5 2.8 23.2
Widowed 100.0 44.5 5.1 16.7 0.8 6.1 26.8
Divorced or separated 100.0 42.5 9.4 16.3 2.9 3.5 25.5
Never married 100.0 46.2 6.0 28.0 0.3 0.8 18.8
Years of education
0-8 100.0 42.2 12.4 23.8 4.3 0.3 17.0
9-11 100.0 46.5 4.5 26.7 1.5 1.0 19.8
12 100.0 33.7 4.8 34.7 0.7 2.8 23.3
13-15 100.0 29.4 3.3 34.9 2.4 4.4 25.6
16 or more 100.0 28.7 2.3 34.5 a 4.7 29.8
Living arrangement
Lives alone 100.0 49.5 9.5 11.0 0.9 3.2 26.0
Lives with relatives 100.0 29.8 3.2 41.2 1.9 2.7 21.2
Lives only with nonrelatives 100.0 45.7 7.4 5.0 1.8 1.2 38.9
Disabled adult children
Subtotal 100.0 43.9 18.2 23.5 0.5 3.7 10.3
Sex
Men 100.0 47.9 17.4 20.4 0.2 1.3 12.8
Women 100.0 38.4 19.3 27.6 0.9 6.9 6.8
Race
White 100.0 46.5 14.8 20.1 0.4 4.8 13.4
Black 100.0 a a a a a a
American Indian, Alaska Native 100.0 a a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 100.0 a a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 100.0 45.5 14.6 24.6 0.6 3.6 11.2
Hispanic 100.0 a a a a a a
Age
Under 25 100.0 a a a a a a
25-34 100.0 a a a a a a
35-44 100.0 42.1 19.1 25.9 a 2.6 10.4
45-54 100.0 a a a a a a
55 or older 100.0 a a a a a a
Marital status
Married 100.0 a a a a a a
Widowed 100.0 a a a a a a
Divorced or separated 100.0 a a a a a a
Never married 100.0 44.2 18.3 22.9 0.5 3.7 10.4
Years of education
0-8 100.0 55.7 24.8 8.6 0.3 2.1 8.6
9-11 100.0 a a a a a a
12 100.0 a a a a a a
13-15 100.0 a a a a a a
16 or more 100.0 a a a a a a
Living arrangement
Lives alone 100.0 a a a a a a
Lives with relatives 100.0 39.8 17.1 26.7 0.6 4.7 11.1
Lives only with nonrelatives 100.0 a a a a a a
SOURCE: 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to SSA administrative records.
NOTE: Individuals receiving disability benefits in December 1999 are identified using SSA administrative data. The unweighted sample size is 793 cases for disabled workers and 87 cases for disabled adult children. Disabled widow(er)s are not shown separately because the unweighted sample size is less than 30 cases, which is deemed too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (202) 358-6225 for further information.
Table 47. Poverty status, by selected characteristics, December 1999
Characteristic Total number Income relative to poverty threshold
Under 50% 50-99% 100-124% 125-149% 150-199% 200-299% 300% or more
All noninstitutionalized disabled beneficiaries
Total 6,145,121 370,940 983,482 524,872 364,153 881,856 1,390,262 1,629,555
Sex
Men 3,632,828 198,591 521,789 306,955 227,070 554,714 797,018 1,026,690
Women 2,512,293 172,349 461,693 217,917 137,083 327,142 593,244 602,865
Race
White 4,830,983 256,744 731,708 396,718 332,324 694,077 1,012,057 1,407,354
Black 1,134,631 94,177 235,759 142,883 25,219 140,230 352,402 161,960
American Indian, Alaska Native 125,652 a a a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 53,855 a a a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 5,709,753 342,780 893,158 484,310 323,088 787,081 1,312,840 1,566,496
Hispanic 435,368 28,161 90,324 40,562 41,065 94,775 77,422 63,059
Age
Under 25 148,086 a a a a a a a
25-34 477,184 19,279 118,206 51,930 16,172 119,511 81,636 70,450
35-44 1,167,284 95,864 197,101 112,063 68,941 153,413 293,291 246,611
45-54 1,887,162 136,270 304,138 171,343 127,561 260,213 346,996 540,642
55 or older 2,465,405 119,528 352,283 175,810 144,273 342,898 611,235 719,378
Marital status
Married 2,796,830 86,250 188,452 162,440 127,460 426,165 743,430 1,062,634
Widowed 338,715 35,509 96,340 22,579 47,393 25,294 61,681 49,920
Divorced or separated 1,399,011 162,892 364,119 176,426 107,966 118,103 262,671 206,834
Never married 1,610,564 86,289 334,571 163,427 81,335 312,294 322,481 310,167
Years of education
0-8 954,373 63,768 236,185 95,879 127,959 139,494 165,401 125,686
9-11 1,108,516 75,112 276,772 96,071 61,680 183,294 275,968 139,620
12 2,127,622 115,679 298,668 240,103 73,188 314,386 496,646 588,953
13-15 1,369,984 85,616 146,374 66,062 80,495 178,321 345,583 467,533
16 or more 584,626 30,764 25,484 26,757 20,831 66,361 106,665 307,763
Disabled workers
Subtotal 5,444,977 334,513 838,311 440,270 336,175 749,737 1,234,334 1,511,637
Sex
Men 3,273,514 179,337 451,792 264,557 211,946 493,173 700,742 971,967
Women 2,171,462 155,176 386,520 175,712 124,230 256,564 533,591 539,669
Race
White 4,310,471 230,001 618,768 346,611 304,346 622,860 895,038 129,847
Black 989,124 84,493 209,330 90,387 25,219 107,652 313,493 158,549
American Indian, Alaska Native 91,527 a a a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander 53,855 a a a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 5,102,349 306,353 763,749 418,711 295,110 689,859 1,162,536 1,466,030
Hispanic 342,627 28,161 74,562 21,559 41,065 59,878 71,797 45,606
Age
Under 25 23,969 a a a a a a a
25-34 349,104 a a a a a a a
35-44 942,263 80,464 168,109 90,942 59,551 82,882 258,414 201,901
45-54 1,798,631 124,927 284,601 166,161 123,291 247,802 332,518 519,332
55 or older 2,331,009 119,528 291,746 153,327 137,161 342,898 583,908 702,442
Marital status
Married 2,786,121 86,250 188,452 156,270 127,460 426,165 738,890 1,062,634
Widowed 271,608 28,091 70,104 13,176 40,280 25,294 61,681 32,983
Divorced or separated 1,395,685 162,892 360,793 176,426 107,966 118,103 262,671 206,834
Never married 991,562 57,281 218,963 94,398 60,469 180,175 171,091 209,185
Years of education
0-8 653,094 59,843 153,298 48,016 111,316 70,419 125,663 84,539
9-11 996,712 65,428 248,308 82,514 56,086 156,626 255,532 132,219
12 1,909,447 102,431 272,503 216,921 71,576 278,011 439,828 528,176
13-15 1,326,309 85,616 146,374 66,062 76,366 178,321 314,630 458,940
16 or more 559,415 21,194 17,828 26,757 20,831 66,361 98,681 307,763
Disabled adult children
Subtotal 625,172 29,009 115,608 75,199 20,866 132,119 151,389 100,982
Sex
Men 359,313 19,254 69,997 42,398 15,125 61,541 96,276 54,723
Women 265,858 9,755 45,611 32,801 5,741 70,578 55,113 46,259
Race
White 459,014 19,325 92,313 40,703 20,866 71,218 117,019 97,571
Black 137,833 a a a a a a a
American Indian, Alaska Native 28,324 a a a a a a a
Asian, Pacific Islander a a a a a a a a
Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic 542,930 29,009 105,194 61,347 20,866 97,222 145,764 83,529
Hispanic 82,241 a a a a a a a
Age
Under 25 124,116 a a a a a a a
25-34 128,081 a a a a a a a
35-44 225,021 15,400 28,992 21,122 9,390 70,530 34,877 44,710
45-54 81,113 a a a a a a a
55 or older 66,841 a a a a a a a
Marital status
Married 6,169 a a a a a a a
Widowed a a a a a a a a
Divorced or separated a a a a a a a a
Never married 619,002 29,009 115,608 69,029 20,866 132,119 151,389 100,982
Years of education
0-8 258,918 3,925 65,278 38,460 9,530 69,076 39,738 32,911
9-11 102,967 a a a a a a a
12 202,057 a a a a a a a
13-15 43,675 a a a a a a a
16 or more 17,555 a a a a a a a
SOURCE: 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to SSA administrative records.
NOTE: Individuals receiving disability benefits in December 1999 are identified using SSA administrative data. The unweighted sample size is 793 cases for disabled workers and 87 cases for disabled adult children. Disabled widow(er)s are not shown separately because the unweighted sample size is less than 30 cases, which is deemed too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (202) 358-6225 for further information.