Links Between Early Retirement and Mortality

by Hilary Waldron
ORES Working Paper No. 93 (released August 2001)
Table equivalent for Chart 1. Percentage of retired male beneficiaries in each birth cohort receiving benefits at each retirement age (in percent)
Birth cohort Retirement age
Exactly 62 62.5–62.9 63–63.9 64–64.9 >=65
1906 21.1 9.2 12.2 13.2 42.8
1907 22.5 7.5 11.2 13.5 43.5
1908 21.4 7.4 12.8 26.3 31.1
1909 21.8 7.8 14.6 22.9 30.5
1910 25.6 11.6 15.2 22.3 23.8
1911 31.1 9.7 15.1 16.8 26.2
1912 29.8 13.8 9.1 23.4 22.6
1913 37.9 7.5 11.6 22.4 19.1
1914 35.0 8.6 8.9 25.4 21.1
1915 36.0 8.2 10.4 24.7 18.1
1916 36.2 9.1 9.6 24.1 17.3
1917 30.6 11.2 13.8 26.1 15.4
1918 31.5 9.8 13.3 22.8 18.8
1919 38.2 15.4 7.5 20.1 14.9
1920 37.8 11.4 8.7 18.8 19.6
1921 41.5 10.6 8.9 19.5 16.1
1922 38.2 9.7 11.4 16.9 18.2
1923 40.5 14.5 8.1 18.3 14.2
1924 46.4 10.6 7.4 16.3 13.9
1925 43.6 10.3 9.9 20.6 10.6
1926 43.8 9.9 8.5 17.2 16.5
1927 43.7 11.4 7.5 16.0 18.5
1928 45.6 10.4 9.2 17.0 15.5
1929 41.3 11.2 7.3 19.1 18.0
1930 50.1 9.9 7.5 13.6 17.1
1931 49.0 11.6 9.4 14.3 15.0
1932 52.0 9.8 10.3 12.8 15.1
 
Table equivalent for Chart 2. Mortality risk differentials from age 65 to 90, without and with interaction effects (log odds of dying)
Age retage1 retage2 retage3 retage4 reference variable (retage5)
  Equation 4: Mortality risk by age of retirement (for married, white, edu2, born in 1926)
65 -4.0949 -4.2068 -4.3007 -4.3092 -4.4181
70 -3.6144 -3.7263 -3.8202 -3.8287 -3.9376
75 -3.1339 -3.2458 -3.3397 -3.3482 -3.4571
80 -2.6534 -2.7653 -2.8592 -2.8677 -2.9766
85 -2.1729 -2.2848 -2.3787 -2.3872 -2.4961
90 -1.6924 -1.8043 -1.8982 -1.9067 -2.0156
  Equation 8: Age*retirement age interactions (for married, white, edu2, born in 1926)
65 -3.8541 -4.0739 -4.2216 -4.202 -4.4452
70 -3.4446 -3.5989 -3.721 -3.7145 -3.8987
75 -3.0351 -3.1239 -3.2204 -3.227 -3.3522
80 -2.6256 -2.6489 -2.7198 -2.7395 -2.8057
85 -2.2161 -2.1739 -2.2192 -2.252 -2.2592
90 -1.8066 -1.6989 -1.7186 -1.7645 -1.7127
NOTE: Retage3 and retage4 overlap.
Table equivalent for Appendix Chart 1. Year of birth*retage1 (for married, white, age 70, edu1, male), (log odds of dying)
Birth cohort No interact (equation 4) Interact (equation 6)
retage1 retage5 retage1 retage5
1906 -3.2102 -3.5334 -3.3753 -3.3863
1911 -3.2732 -3.5964 -3.4093 -3.4703
1916 -3.3362 -3.6594 -3.4433 -3.5543
1921 -3.3992 -3.7224 -3.4773 -3.6383
1926 -3.4622 -3.7854 -3.5113 -3.7223
1931 -3.5252 -3.8484 -3.5453 -3.8063
 
Table equivalent for Appendix Chart 2. Percentage of birth cohort with given years of education
Birth cohort Less than 12 years 12–15 years 16 years or more
1906 62.1 29.7 8.3
1907 61.4 26.8 11.8
1908 59.7 28.6 11.7
1909 57.8 33.2 9.1
1910 58.0 33.6 8.4
1911 50.4 35.3 14.3
1912 53.6 35.3 11.1
1913 51.3 38.6 10.2
1914 48.0 39.5 12.6
1915 46.0 41.0 13.4
1916 42.7 46.4 10.9
1917 35.0 51.4 13.7
1918 35.6 49.1 15.2
1919 38.9 48.4 12.7
1920 33.1 51.8 15.2
1921 34.4 51.6 14.0
1922 33.0 49.9 17.1
1923 33.1 48.6 18.3
1924 28.2 52.2 19.5
1925 33.9 45.1 21.1
1926 35.4 45.1 19.5
1927 29.2 49.9 20.9
1928 29.2 50.7 20.1
1929 25.7 50.1 24.2
1930 25.2 50.5 24.3
1931 26.6 48.3 25.1
1932 24.0 51.4 24.7
 
Table equivalent for Appendix Chart 3. Year of birth*edu (for married, whtie, age 70, retage1, male), (log odds of dying)
Birth cohort No interact (equation 4) Interact (equation 5)
edu1 edu3 edu1 edu3
1906 -3.2102 -3.5284 -3.2822 -3.3231
1916 -3.3362 -3.6544 -3.3232 -3.5871
1926 -3.4622 -3.7804 -3.3642 -3.8511
1932 -3.5378 -3.856 -3.3888 -4.0095