I-2-5-30.Medical or Vocational Expert Opinion — General

Last Update: 8/29/14 (Transmittal I-2-118)

A. Obtaining an Expert Opinion

Before scheduling a hearing, the administrative law judge (ALJ) or the hearing office (HO) staff under the ALJ's direction must review all of the evidence to determine if additional evidence is needed to inquire fully into the matters at issue. An ALJ will follow the applicable instructions in Hearings, Appeals and Litigation Law (HALLEX) manual I-2-5-34 (medical experts (ME)) and I-2-5-50 (vocational experts (VE)) to determine whether he or she needs to obtain an expert opinion.

If, after review, the ALJ determines he or she needs an ME or VE opinion, the ALJ will obtain the opinion either through testimony at a hearing or through written interrogatories. The ALJ must make every effort to obtain all essential documentary evidence early enough to allow the ME or VE sufficient time to consider the evidence before he or she responds to questions at a hearing or answers written interrogatories.

B. Testimony at the Hearing

Generally, it is preferred that an ALJ obtain an ME or VE opinion at the hearing, regardless of the expert's manner of appearance (i.e., in-person, by video teleconferencing (VTC), or by telephone). Obtaining testimony at a hearing, rather than through interrogatories, is preferred because it allows the ALJ, claimant, and representative, if any, the opportunity to ask the ME or VE any questions material to the issues, including questions that arise for the first time during the hearing.

The ALJ will determine the manner of the ME's or VE's appearance at the hearing and may direct the expert to appear by VTC or telephone under the circumstances in HALLEX I-2-3-10 A.2.


See HALLEX I-2-3-10 A.1. for information on when the ALJ may direct a claimant to appear by VTC or telephone.

The claimant may state objections to the expert appearing by VTC or telephone, or he or she may object to the expert based on perceived bias or lack of expertise. The ALJ will decide, either in writing or at the hearing, whether the expert will appear in-person, by VTC, or by telephone, and will respond on the record to any other objections raised about the expert.

C. Interrogatories

Prior to hearing, an ALJ may use interrogatories if he or she decides that personal appearance and testimony by the expert are not essential and that interrogatories will provide a full inquiry into the matters at issue.

If an ALJ uses interrogatories after the hearing, the ALJ or HO staff must follow proffer procedures in HALLEX I-2-7-30 and I-2-7-35. This is necessary to allow the claimant and appointed representative, if any, the opportunity to object to any questions or to propose additional questions.

After receipt of the answers to interrogatories, the claimant has the right to request a supplemental hearing or to produce other information to rebut any of the responses. See HALLEX I-2-7-30 H.

D. Waiver of Right to a Hearing

As set forth in HALLEX I-2-1-45 E, a claimant may waive the right to appear at an oral hearing and have the case decided on the evidence of record. However, even when the ALJ decides that the claimant's personal appearance and testimony are not essential, the ALJ may still schedule a hearing or supplemental hearing to obtain testimony from a VE or ME. The ALJ must provide notice to the claimant of any scheduled proceeding.