PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT FOR HOME HEALTH SERVICES
Sec. 1895. [42 U.S.C. 1395fff] (a) In General.—Notwithstanding section 1861(v), the Secretary shall provide, for portions of cost reporting periods occurring on or after October 1, 2000, for payments for home health services in accordance with a prospective payment system established by the Secretary under this section.
(b) System of Prospective Payment for Home Health Services.—
(1) In general.—The Secretary shall establish under this subsection a prospective payment system for payment for all costs of home health services. Under the system under this subsection all services covered and paid on a reasonable cost basis under the medicare home health benefit as of the date of the enactment of this section, including medical supplies, shall be paid for on the basis of a prospective payment amount determined under this subsection and applicable to the services involved. In implementing the system, the Secretary may provide for a transition (of not longer than 4 years) during which a portion of such payment is based on agency-specific costs, but only if such transition does not result in aggregate payments under this title that exceed the aggregate payments that would be made if such a transition did not occur.
(2) Unit of payment.—In defining a prospective payment amount under the system under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider an appropriate unit of service and the number, type, and duration of visits provided within that unit, potential changes in the mix of services provided within that unit and their cost, and a general system design that provides for continued access to quality services.
(3) Payment basis.—
(A) Initial basis.—
(i) In general.—Under such system the Secretary shall provide for computation of a standard prospective payment amount (or amounts) as follows:
(I) Such amount (or amounts) shall initially be based on the most current audited cost report data available to the Secretary and shall be computed in a manner so that the total amounts payable under the system for the 12-period beginning on the date the Secretary implements the system shall be equal to the total amount that would have been made if the system had not been in effect and if section 1861(v)(1)(L)(ix) had not been enacted.
(II) For the 12-month period beginning after the period described in subclause (I), such amount (or amounts) shall be equal to the amount (or amounts) determined under subclause (I), updated under subparagraph (B).
(III) Subject to clause (iii), for periods beginning after the period described in subclause (II), such amount (or amounts) shall be equal to the amount (or amounts) that would have been determined under subclause (I) that would have been made for fiscal year 2001 if the system had not been in effect and if section 1861(v)(1)(L)(ix) had not been in effect but if the reduction in limits described in clause (ii) had been in effect, updated under subparagraph (B).
Each such amount shall be standardized in a manner that eliminates the effect of variations in relative case mix and area wage adjustments among different home health agencies in a budget neutral manner consistent with the case mix and wage level adjustments provided under paragraph (4)(A). Under the system, the Secretary may recognize regional differences or differences based upon whether or not the services or agency are in an urbanized area.
(ii) Reduction.—The reduction described in this clause is a reduction by 15 percent in the cost limits and per beneficiary limits described in section 1861(v)(1)(L), as those limits are in effect on September 30, 2000.
(I) In general.—Subject to subclause (II), for 2014 and subsequent years, the amount (or amounts) that would otherwise be applicable under clause (i)(III) shall be adjusted by a percentage determined appropriate by the Secretary to reflect such factors as changes in the number of visits in an episode, the mix of services in an episode, the level of intensity of services in an episode, the average cost of providing care per episode, and other factors that the Secretary considers to be relevant. In conducting the analysis under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may consider differences between hospital-based and freestanding agencies, between for-profit and nonprofit agencies, and between the resource costs of urban and rural agencies. Such adjustment shall be made before the update under subparagraph (B) is applied for the year.
(II) Transition.—The Secretary shall provide for a 4-year phase-in (in equal increments) of the adjustment under subclause (I), with such adjustment being fully implemented for 2017. During each year of such phase-in, the amount of any adjustment under subclause (I) for the year may not exceed 3.5 percent of the amount (or amounts) applicable under clause (i)(III) as of the date of enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
(B) Annual update.—
(i) In general.—The standard prospective payment amount (or amounts) shall be adjusted for fiscal year 2002 and for fiscal year 2003 and for each subsequent year (beginning with 2004) in a prospective manner specified by the Secretary by the home health applicable increase percentage (as defined in clause (ii)) applicable to the fiscal year or year involved.
(ii) Home health applicable increase percentage.—For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “home health applicable increase percentage” means, with respect to—
(I) each of fiscal years 2002 and 2003, the home health market basket percentage increase (as defined in clause (iii)) minus 1.1 percentage points;
(II) for the last calendar quarter of 2003 and the first calendar quarter of 2004, the home health market basket percentage increase;
(III) the last 3 calendar quarters of 2004, and all of 2005 the home health market basket percentage increase minus 0.8 percentage points;
(IV) 2006, 0 percent; and
(V) any subsequent year, subject to clauses (v) and (vi), the home health market basket percentage increase.
(iii) Home health market basket percentage increase.—For purposes of this subsection, the term home health market basket percentage increase means, with respect to a fiscal year or year, a percentage (estimated by the Secretary before the beginning of the fiscal year or year) determined and applied with respect to the mix of goods and services included in home health services in the same manner as the market basket percentage increase under section 1886(b)(3)(B)(iii) is determined and applied to the mix of goods and services comprising inpatient hospital services for the fiscal year or year.
(iv) Adjustment for case mix changes.—Insofar as the Secretary determines that the adjustments under paragraph (4)(A)(i) for a previous fiscal year or year (or estimates that such adjustments for a future fiscal year or year) did (or are likely to) result in a change in aggregate payments under this subsection during the fiscal year or year that are a result of changes in the coding or classification of different units of services that do not reflect real changes in case mix, the Secretary may adjust the standard prospective payment amount (or amounts) under paragraph (3) for subsequent fiscal years or years so as to eliminate the effect of such coding or classification changes.
(v) Adjustment if quality data not submitted.—
(I) Adjustment.—For purposes of clause (ii)(V), for 2007 and each subsequent year, in the case of a home health agency that does not submit data to the Secretary in accordance with subclause (II) with respect to such a year, the home health market basket percentage increase applicable under such clause for such year shall be reduced by 2 percentage points. Such reduction shall apply only with respect to the year involved, and the Secretary shall not take into account such reduction in computing the prospective payment amount under this section for a subsequent year, and the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission shall carry out the requirements under section 5201(d) of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005.
(II) Submission of quality data.—For 2007 and each subsequent year, each home health agency shall submit to the Secretary such data that the Secretary determines are appropriate for the measurement of health care quality. Such data shall be submitted in a form and manner, and at a time, specified by the Secretary for purposes of this clause.
(III) Public availability of data submitted.—The Secretary shall establish procedures for making data submitted under subclause (II) available to the public. Such procedures shall ensure that a home health agency has the opportunity to review the data that is to be made public with respect to the agency prior to such data being made public.
(vi) Adjustments.—After determining the home health market basket percentage increase under clause (iii), and after application of clause (v), the Secretary shall reduce such percentage—
(I) for 2015 and each subsequent year, by the productivity adjustment described in section 1886(b)(3)(B)(xi)(II); and for each of 2011 and 2012, by 1 percentage point.
(II) for each of 2011 and 2012, by 1 percentage point.
The application of this clause may result in the home health market basket percentage increase under clause (iii) being less than 0.0 for a year, and may result in payment rates under the system under this subsection for a year being less than such payment rates for the preceding year.
(C) Adjustment for outliers.—The Secretary shall reduce the standard prospective payment amount (or amounts) under this paragraph applicable to home health services furnished during a period by such proportion as will result in an aggregate reduction in payments for the period equal to 5 percent of the total payments estimated to be made based on the prospective payment system under this subsection for the period.
(4) Payment computation.—
(A) In general.—The payment amount for a unit of home health services shall be the applicable standard prospective payment amount adjusted as follows:
(i) Case mix adjustment.—The amount shall be adjusted by an appropriate case mix adjustment factor (established under subparagraph (B)).
(ii) Area wage adjustment.—The portion of such amount that the Secretary estimates to be attributable to wages and wage-related costs shall be adjusted for geographic differences in such costs by an area wage adjustment factor (established under subparagraph (C)) for the area in which the services are furnished or such other area as the Secretary may specify.
(B) Establishment of case mix adjustment factors.—The Secretary shall establish appropriate case mix adjustment factors for home health services in a manner that explains a significant amount of the variation in cost among different units of services.
(C) Establishment of area wage adjustment factors.—The Secretary shall establish area wage adjustment factors that reflect the relative level of wages and wage-related costs applicable to the furnishing of home health services in a geographic area compared to the national average applicable level. Such factors may be the factors used by the Secretary for purposes of section 1886(d)(3)(E).
(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary may provide for an addition or adjustment to the payment amount otherwise made in the case of outliers because of unusual variations in the type or amount of medically necessary care. The total amount of the additional payments or payment adjustments made under this paragraph with respect to a fiscal year or year may not exceed 2.5 percent of the total payments projected or estimated to be made based on the prospective payment system under this subsection in that year.
(B) Program specific outlier cap.—The estimated total amount of additional payments or payment adjustments made under subparagraph (A) with respect to a home health agency for a year (beginning with 2011) may not exceed an amount equal to 10 percent of the estimated total amount of payments made under this section (without regard to this paragraph) with respect to the home health agency for the year.
(6) Proration of prospective payment amounts.—If a beneficiary elects to transfer to, or receive services from, another home health agency within the period covered by the prospective payment amount, the payment shall be prorated between the home health agencies involved.
(c) Requirements for Payment Information.—With respect to home health services furnished on or after October 1, 1998, no claim for such a service may be paid under this title unless—
(2) in the case of a service visit described in paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1861(m), the claim contains a code (or codes) specified by the Secretary that identifies the length of time of the service visit, as measured in 15 minute increments.
(3) the computation of initial standard prospective payment amounts under subsection (b)(3)(A) (including the reduction described in clause (ii) of such subsection);
(4) the establishment of the adjustment for outliers under subsection (b)(3)(C);
(5) the establishment of case mix and area wage adjustments under subsection (b)(4); and
(6) the establishment of any adjustments for outliers under subsection (b)(5).
(e) Construction Related to Home Health Services.—
(1) Telecommunications.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as preventing a home health agency furnishing a home health unit of service for which payment is made under the prospective payment system established by this section for such units of service from furnishing services via a telecommunication system if such services—
(B) are not considered a home health visit for purposes of eligibility or payment under this title.
(2) Physician certification.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as waiving the requirement for a physician certification under section 1814(a)(2)(C) or 1835(a)(2)(A) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395f(a)(2)(C), 1395n(a)(2)(A)) for the payment for home health services, whether or not furnished via a telecommunications system.
 See Vol. II, P.L. 111-148 §3131(b)(2), with respect to a MedPAC study and report with respect to payment adjustments for home health care.